Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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An early description of Kentucky, ca 1660: <If we believe our Iroquois who have returned thence, and the Slaves whom they have brought thence, it is a country which has cone of the severity of our winters, but enjoys a climate that is always temperate -- a continual Spring and Autumn, as it were. The soil there is so fertile that one could almost say of it, within bounds, what the Israelite discoverers said of the Promised land; for, to mention the Indian corn only, it puts forth a stalk of such extrardinary thickness and height that one could take it for a tree, while it bears ears two feet long with grains that resemble in size our large Muscatel grapes. . . . Deer, Buffalo, wild Hogs, and another species of large animal wholly unknown to us, inhabit those beautiful forests, which are like so many Orchards, consisting almost wholly of fruit-trees. In their branches live very peacefully birds of all colors and of every note, especially little Paroquets, which are so numerous that we have seen some of our Iroquois return from those countries with scarfs and belts which they had made from these birds by a process of interweaving. One finds there also a kind of Serpent of prodigious size and two brasses in length; but there are harmless Snakes, their venom not being hurtful or their sting injurious. The people are not so inoffensive as the snakes, for they make use of a poison with which they understand perfectly the art of infecting springs, and even whole rivers; and they do it with such skill that the water loses nothing of its fair appearance, although it be tainted through out. Their villages are situated along a beautiful river which serves to carry the people down to the great Lake (for so they call the Sea), where they trade with Europeans who pray as we do, and use Rosaries, as well as Bells for calling to Prayers.> R. G. Thwaites, ed., THE JESUIT RELATIONS AND ALLIED DOCUMENTS (Cleveland: Clark, 1896-1901) 67:145,147 quoted in MOORE:18

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20381-25868
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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Kentucky rifle <an economical and accurate weapon well suited to the needs of the settlers. . . . decidedly superior to any previously used extensively in the Mississippi Valley, whether by the French or the British.> Came to be known as the Kentucky rifle after ca. 1770. Made first by Swiss and German gunsmiths near Lancaster PA. Barrel 42" or longer, usually octagonal, stock of curly maple, cherry, apple or walnut, entending to the muzzle, patch box, trigger guard, side plate, rod pipes, front sight, and brass butt plate. Ball approximately 3/100 of an inch smaller than the barrel, inserted wrapped in a greased patch of buckskin, rammed home with a hickory ramrod. American hunter needed a smaller bore than the standard .70-caliber European rifles, since powder and lead were difficult to procure and transport. One pound of lead could produce 48 bullets for a .45-caliber Kentucky flintlock, only a third as many for the heavier European arms. Powder use correspondingly economical. <In this weapon the frontiermen had an efficient complement to their physical strength and animal cunning.> The range and accuracy of the Kentucky rifle has been greatly exaggerated. Velocity hardly in excess of 1600 feet, so shootin markedly affected by the wind. <Under good conditions, however, the rifle was extraordinarly accurate up to a hundred yards and effective at even twice that distance.> Penetration was low, but shocking power was high. Ball tended to disintgrate on impact. Clos shooting was requisite, as neighter deer nor buffalo could be brought down with indiscriminate hits. <Out of the necessity for killing game and Indians and out of sheer love of weapons, the frontiersman developed his marksman ship to a degree of excellence that commands the respect even of modern experts who are accustomed to precision-built arms of high velocity and low trajectory, standardized ammunition, and telescopic sights.> MOORE:54-55

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20381-25869
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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The ax -- <as fine an instrument of destruction as his rifle and in the conquest of nature rather more decisive.> <Handiness with the ax was one criterion of fitness in the wilderness, and man accordingly acquired extraordinary skill in the management of the tool.> <Walnut and other straight-grained timber split like melons beneath axes, iron wedges, and dogwood gluts, manipulated by men who had acquired the strength, the rhythm, and the eye for the work. Whole forests of oak, beech, poplar, maple, and walnut, standing since Columbus, collapsed in a matter of years from girdling and deadening with fire. There was in the heart of the new race no more consideration for the trees than for the game until the best of both were gone; steel conquered the West but chilled the soul of the conqueror. This assault on nature, than which few more frightful spectacles could be imagined, owed much to sheer need, but something also to a compelling desire to destroy conspicuous specimens of the fauna and flora of the winderness. The orign of this mad destructiveness may be in doubt, but there is no question about its effect. The Ohio valley today has neither trees nor animals to recall adequately the splendor of the garden of the Indian which the white man found and used so profligately.> MOORE:56

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20381-25870
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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With few exceptions, aristocratic Virginians took a relatively minor part in the more difficult phases of settlement but acted through surrogates to procure desirable acreages, preferably by grant or preemption, otherwise by outright purchase from the occupants. . . . The real pioneers like the Harrods, McAfees, Calloways, Boones, Bryans, Logans, and Floyds, who endured the privations of the raw frontier and the onslaughts of the Indians, figured progressively less in the affairs of the region, gradually giving way before men of wealth and education, such as the Browns, Todds, Bullits, Breckinridges, McDowells, Harts, George Nicholas, Harry Innes, Caleb Wallace, Thomas Marshall, and James Wilkinson, many of whom had been leaders previously in southwestern Virginia. Even worse, many of the earliest settlers had to surrender their land on account of defective titles.> MOORE:71-73

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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Samuel Woodward, author of "The Old Oaken Busket," also wrote "The Hunters of Kentucky:" <We are a hardy freeborn race, Each man to fear a stranger, Whate'er the game, we join the chase, Despising toil and danger; And if a daring foe annoys, Whate'er his strengh and forces We'll show him that Kentucky boys Are "alligator horses." O Kentucky, the hunters of Kentucky. O Kentucky, the hunters of Kentucky.> Clipped from the New York MIRROR and sent by his brother to Noah Ludlow, a well-known actor, who introduced it in New Orleans in 5/1822, dressed in buckskin and carrying a rifle; it was received with wild enthusiasm. It made his career. <The popularity of the piece was owing in some part to the spreading fame of the legendary heroes of the Kentucky wilderness.> [Interesting note here: Ludlow had recently come down river from St. Louis, where his acting company had been stranded during the hard times following the Panic of 1819, and he had been forced to take work as a signpainter and gilder. Engraver James Otto Lewis engaged him to frame and guid the frames of his engraving of Chester Harding's portrait of Boone. By 1822 he had left St. Louis and was in New Orleans where he hit the number with "The Hunters of Kentucky." His costume was his best approximation of the garb that he had seen the figure of Boone wearing in the Harding-Lewis engraving. Clifford Amyx, "The Authentic Image of Daniel Boone," MHR 82 (1988):157-158.] MOORE:90-91

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25872
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<In truth, Daniel Boone played a relatively minor role in the early history of Kentucky; Simon Kenton engaged the Indians fra more audaciously, and George Rogers Clark wrought with incomparably greater effect as a leader of the despondent pioneers. If, as Thwaites remarked, Boone's "career possesses a romantic and even pathetic interest that can never fail to charm the student of history," the reason is that the American imagination seized upon the simple hunter as a much-needed symbol and cloaked him with appropriate legends. Boone, the "superman guiding his generation and future generations across the mountains," a conception despised by Alvord, served his country best not as a reality but as an epic hero enthroned in eighteenth-century rather than classical myth. . . . The transformation of old Daniel from a rather ordinary backwoodsman into a heroic agent of progress owed something to a desire to conceal the unpleasant reality of the expansion and something also to cultural idealism.> MOORE:148

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25873
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<Rational progressivism expresses the official rather better than the private view of the expansion in the nineteenth century; the main appeal of the frontier for much of the public was its intimations of the primitive. While acknowledging the doctrine of progress and upholding civilized values, frontier chroniclers and romancers meant above all to satisfy the widespread interest in primitive modes of existence, an interest intensified to the point of enthusiasm by European naturalism in general and particularly by Rousseau's speculations about man in the state of nature. If the untamed West of the Indian and the heroic white hunter was by the commonsense view only a barbarian wild standing in need of the civilizing process, it also connoted for the urban imagination a desirable way of life. The popularity of the Leaterstocking Tales suggests that a considerable public held and enjoyed both conceptions without much conscious confusion. Yet the measure of approval bestowed on the ravages of progress was mixed with deep-felt regret for the loss of the wilderness as a symbol of idyllic felicity and unbounded freedom.> <Whether sought out or not, the West was for many nineteenth-century Americans not only a wilderness to be civilized but also an exciting alternative to civilization, where man could escape the harassments of the social mechanism and complete his life in all desirable things. Much of this feeling centered on the frontiersman of the Boone type, who embodied all wished-for qualities and realized all wished-for experiences in the state of nature.> MOORE:186

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25874
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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French knew of Kentucky by the the 1670s. In 1674 Gabriel Arthur, while in the company of a band of Cherokees, was captured by Shawnees and taken to their town on the Scioto; when released later that year, he returned to VA via the Warrior's Path. Arnout Viele, a Dutch trader from Albany, with a party of whites and Indians, entered KY in 1692 and remained in the Ohio valley for two years. Jean Cuture, a French-Canadian explorer, viewed the Bluegrass between 1690-1693, and in 1700 guided a party of SC traders down the Tennessee river to the Ohio. 1742 John Peter Salley and three others joined John Howard in an expedition down the Ohio and MIssissippi, terminating with their capture by a party of French and Indians. Dr. Thomas Walker crossed the Cumberland Gap as a surveyor for the Loyal Land Company in 1750. Christopher Gist, employed by the Ohio Company, traveled the Ohio river in 1751, crossing KY and returning to VA via Pound Gap. John Finley was in KY in 1752. Henry Scaggs hunted on the Cumberland river in 1764. James Smith with four others passed through Cumberland Gap in 1766. Isaac Lindsey and five hunters entered KY from SC in 1766. James Harrod and Michael Stoner were in the SE part of KY in 1767. MOORE:48-49

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25875
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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DB's <actual accomplishments in the role of frontier warrior poorly supported his towering reputation; Lady Fame, as Horace observed long before, bestows her favors capriciously on military figures. Many a Kentuckian engaged in much more heroic actions with the Shawnee than Boone but unfortunately lacked a Filson. . . . There is slight evidence that Boone ever knowkingly killed an Indian, and no record of a violent hand-to-hand conbat. . . . Aside from this battle [of Boonesborough] and the daring rescue of his daughter . . . Boone seems to have dealt with the Indians by avoiding or placating them. If he hated Indians, as Thwaites implied, the Shawnee were insensible of the fact, releasing him unharmed in 1769 and actually adopting him early in 1778. . . .> MOORE:97

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25876
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<The brief and ineffectual forays of the Kentuckians against the Ohio Indians created captaincies, majorities, and colonelcies, sufficient to staff a modern army. Even after the abatement of the red menace, county militias mustered annually. largely, it is to be suspected, to permit the officers, usually political appointees, to show their quality before the homebreds. While no family in the West can pretend to the kind of distinction recognized by patriotic societies without a sheaf of old commissions, the possession of them is not proof of gentle beginnings; they were available to men of unimpressive background like Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett, colonels both.> MOORE:122

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25877
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<The doctrine of progress doomed the frontiersman no less than the Indian, though the former was spared the hatred and abuse lavished upon the latter. All savages, whether red or white, suffered from civilized processes, and all were savages who resisted the blessings of civilization. The predicament of the Boone species was cloaked by the romantic folds of primitivism. As a noble savage or child of nature, the Indian fighter had no desire for such rewards as delight men of culture; he sought only the pleasures of the primeval forest. The myth of Boone's atavism, in part a product of the mechanics of rationalization, seems not to have been examined critically -- and no wonder, since it relieved the public of a sense of guilt.> MOORE:156

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25878
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<As the rapid depletion of game attests, hunting in some degree provided an outlet between wars for the strong desire in Americans for conflict and conquest. On the frontier, survival oftend epended on the ability to kill buffalo and deer, but the wanton destruction of the large herds evidences what is nowhere denied, that sheer delight in killing as much as actual need motivated the hunters. . . . The wastefulness displayed by the hunters in the Kentucky wilderness, which because heavily forested afforded animals some protection, was a forecast of the spectaculaar outrages to be committed regularly against the magnificent herds of buffalo on the plains beyond the Mississippi.> MOORE:200

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25879
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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FILSON <'s motive cannot now be divined, but it is apparent that he clothed in buckskin an ideal form, namely, the child of nature postulated by the Enlightenment for the purpose os assailing the defenders of corrupt institutions, which shackled man on the pretext that he was incapable of governing himself.> MOORE:210

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25880
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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Isaac Reed, 2/1/1818: <The [Baptist] preacher was descanting upon heaven, and the heavenly state. He wished his hearers to get a just idea of that place, and he attempted to give it by comparison: it was in the [Paint Lick] meeting-house, not half a mile from where I now write, where the preacher said to his hearers, "O my dear honeys, heaven is a Kentucky of a place."> THE CHRISTIAN TRAVELLER (New York, 1828) quoted in MOORE:24

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25881
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<Most of the frontiersmen died unchurched and in the orthodox view unregenerate. Moreover, they established a tradition of barbarism which gained strength with the years.> MOORE:40

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25882
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<A state of siege such as the Kentuckians endured for nearly twenty years evokes the very qualities which stable societies suppress, and when the threat of sudden death passes, the survivors are unlikely to adopt civilized modes at once.> Quotes Crevecoeur to the effect that such a transition <produce a strange sort of lawless profligacy, the impressions of which are indelible. The manners of the Indian natives are respectable, compared with this European medley.> MOORE:66

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25883
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<Men of a heroic society must verify their manhood by acts of ultimate courage. By strength and daring they assert their worth and in accordance lay claim to land, women, and chattels.> MOORE:80

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25884
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<though a fairly trustworthy ornithologist, was often a whimsical chronicler of the frontier. Audubon probably saw Boone "bark" a squirrel, as he maintained, but judging from his description of Daniel as "giagantic," absolute veracity was not his main concern.> MOORE:84

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25885
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<The gentlemanly Boone strain, while never actually obliterated, struggled increasingly with less refined elements in the anatomy of the Kentuckian, elements which early travelers perceived or imagined and which popular writers flagrantly magnified.> MOORE:93

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25886
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<It is much to be regretted that the materials for a sketch of Boone are so scanty. He has left us a brief account of his adventures, but they are rather such as one would require for the composition of an epitaph than of a biography.> quoted in MOORE:9

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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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Moore cites estimates that in 1760 the churched numbered 1 in 8 in New England, 1/15 in the middle colonies, and only 1/20 in the South. Citing Sweet in MOORE:229


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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<If the Shawnee had fallen in such numbers as frontier sketches suggest, few indeed would have remained in the period of the relocation. In truth, the Ohio Indians were usually more than a match for the settlers and apparently lost significant numbers only in large-scale actions, to which they never became entirely accustomed.> MOORE:99

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25889
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<A third party was needed to mediate between savagery and civilization and to fill the role of agent in the myth of progress, a man both doughty and benevolent. It can hardly be considered an accident that Filson chose Boone instead of Kenton for immortality or that Cooper preferred Leatherstocking over Henry March.> MOORE:174

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20381-25890
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1957

Arthur K. Moore, THE FRONTIER MIND (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957)

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<apparently distressed over his subject's illiteracy, stated what probably no one ever denied, that scholarly endeavor is incompatible with heroic conditions.> MOORE:220

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