Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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Two conflicting attitudes embedded in the popular image of DB: On the one hand, the "official view," the "cult of progress," the celebration of <the conquest of the wilderness by farms and towns and cities,> the <glorious victory of civilization over savagery and barbarism.> On the other "primitivism," <the slightly decadent cult of wildness and savagery which the early nineteenth century took over from Byron,> and by contrast, precisely <a mood of refined hostility to progress.> The official view of Boone set forth in Horatio Greenough's "Rescue Group" (installed 1851), or George Caleb Bingham's "The Emigration of Daniel Boone" (1851). This view is also present in Filson, and most particularly in Bryan's MOUNTAIN MUSE. But <by the side of Boone the empire builder and philanthropist, the anonymous popular mind had meanwhile created an entirely different hero, a fugitive from civilization who could not endure the encroachment of settlements upon his beloved wilderness.> [Cites NILES REGISTER 6/15/1816, 12/26/1818, 5/17/1823; Edwin James; Byron] <Which was the real Boone -- the standard-bearer of civilization and refinement, or the child of nature who fled into the wilderness before the advance of settlement?> <The image of the Wild Western hero could serve either purpose.> SMITH:52-55,58

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:43:44 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26827
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26827


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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Thomas Jefferson, 6/22/1786, for an article prepared for the French ENCYCLOPEDIE: quoted SMITH:10

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:44:02 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26828
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26828


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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Edwin James, chronicler of the Stephen H. Long expedition, visiting Fort Osage in 1819, heard that DB felt it was time to move again when he could no longer fell a tree for fuel so that its top would lie with a few yards of the door of his cabin. James commented that frontiersmen had <a manifest propensity, particularly in the males, to remove westward, for which it is not easy to account.> There was an irresistible charm for a true Westerner in a mode of life <wherein the artificial wants and the uneasy restraints inseparable from a crowded population are not known, wherein we feel ourselves dependent immediately and solely on the bounty of nature, and the strength of our own arm. . . .> Edwin James, ed., ACCOUNT OF AN EXPEDITION FROM PITTSBURGH TO THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS, PERFORMED IN THE YEARS 1819 AND '20 . . . UNDER THE COMMAND OF MAJOR STEPHEN H. LONG 2 vols (Philadelphia, 1823) 1:105 quoted in SMITH:54-55

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26829
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1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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An anonymous kinsman of DB in 1823: It would be natural to suppose that he took great pleasure in the growth and development of the society he had founded in the wilderness; but he saw only that incoming settlers frightened away all the game and spoiled the chase; he would In C. Wilder, LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF COLONEL DANIEL BOONE:217-221 quoted in SMITH:55

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:44:53 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26830
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26830


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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biography of DB was <perhaps the most widely read book about a Western character published during the first half of the nineteenth century.> It embodies the paradoxical attitudes about DB. He says that DB delighted in the thought that <the rich and boundless valleys of the great west -- the garden of the earth -- and the paradise of hunters, had been won from the dominion of the savage tribes, and opened as any asylum for the oppressed, the enterprising, and the free of every land.> But just a few pages later Flint writes that he was driven out of KY by <the restless spirit of immigration, and of civil and physical improvement.> In MO <the tide of emigration once more swept by the dwelling of Daniel Boone, driving off the game and monopolizing the rich hunting grounds,> and in despair <he saw that it was in vain to contend with fate; that go where he would, American enterprize seemed doomed to follow him, and to thwart all his schemes of backwoods retirement. He found himself once more surrounded by the rapid march of improvement, and he accommodated himself, as well as he might, to a state of things which he could not prevent.> On other occasions, Flint credits DB with a cult of pastoral simplicity; inducing others to go with him to the new land he promises them that in their old age they will be surrounded by <consideration, and care, and tenderness from children, whose breasts were not steeled by ambition, nor hardened by avarice; in whom the beauriful influences of the indulgence of none but natural desires and pure affections would not be deadened by the selfishness, vanity, and fear of ridicule, that are the harvest of what is called civilized and cultivated life.> quoted in SMITH:55-56

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:45:17 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26831
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26831


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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Boone He was a white Indian, led into the wilderness not by the hope of gain, nor by a desire to escape the evils of older communities, nor by dreams of empire, but simply by James H. Perkins of Cincinnati, NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW 62 (January 1846):86-87, 97 quoted in SMITH:57

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:45:35 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26832
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26832


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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The persistent image of DB was a man of great age. <When John Filson's biography of Boone appeared in 1784, the Kentuckian, at fifty, already seemed a patriarchal figure, his active days of fighting in the past. The folk cult of Boone that developed after 1815 emphasized the picturesque conception of an octogenarian huntsman. Cooper himself gives testimony to the popular tendency to exaggerate Boone's age when he remarks in a note to the revised edition of THE PRAIRIE that the famous hunter emigrated to Missouri "in his ninety-second year." Boone was actually sixty-five when that event occurred. The many Western hunters created in the image of Leatherstocking who people Western fiction through most of the nineteenth century are characteristically of advanced age.> SMITH:67-68

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26833
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1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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By the time the biographer interviewed the aged hero in Missouri in 1818, Boone had become aware of an imposing historical mission. Although he had not consciously aimed to lay the foundations of a state or nation, he believed that he had been "a creature of Providence, ordained by Heaven as a pioneer in the wilderness, to advance the civilization and the extension of his quoted in SMITH:57

File: SMTH.NT2



    Created: 8/9/2017 12:46:41 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26834
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26834


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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Cooper based a part of chapers 10 and 11 of THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS on the JEMIMACAPTIVITY. Cooper also mentions DB in a footnote in THE PRAIRIE

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:47:07 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26835
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26835


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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This only a few months after the publication of THE PIONEERS: <A settlement at the mouth of the COLUMBIA has been seriously advocated in Congress, and will soon be made under the sanction of government; and, in a few years, we may expect that some persons THERE, feeling themselves too much crowded, like "Leatherstocking" in the "Pioneers," will seek a country more WEST -- Japan, perhaps, if good hunting could be expected therein!> NILES REGISTER 4/5/1823 quoted in SMITH:268-269n

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:47:29 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26836
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26836


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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SMITH:102-103

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:47:55 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26837
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26837


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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A review notes the similarities between DB and Leatherstocking in THE PIONEERS. Both love the freedom of the forest, both are passionate about hunting, both dislike the pursuits of civilization. NILES REGISTER 12/3/1825 cited in SMITH:60

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:48:22 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26838
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26838


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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A reviewer of THE PIONEERS noted that Leaterstocking had been in PORT FOLIO, 4th series 15 (March 1823):232 cited in SMITH:268n

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:48:38 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26839
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20551-26839


1950

Henry Nash Smith, VIRGIN LAND: THE AMERICAN WEST AS SYMBOL AND MYTH (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950)

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First American reprinting of the Boone passages may have been in C. Wilder, LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF COLONEL DANIEL BOONE, THE FIRST WHITE SETTLER OF THE STATE OF KENTUCKY . . . WRITTEN BY HIMSELF . . . ANNEXED IS A EULOGY ON COL. BOONE AND CHOICE OF LIFE BY LORD BYRON (Brooklyn, 1923). SMITH:55

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    Created: 8/9/2017 12:49:25 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20551-26840
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