Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Western portions of the southern Piedmont, consisting of rolling hills with fertile soil composed of limestone or stiff clays and covered with a variety of vegetation; superior climate, well suited for settlement. <This area attracted thousands of pioneers who poured into the back country of the Carolinas and Georgia during the 1760s. No other region in the vast complex of hills, valleys, and mountains except the Kentucky Basin and Mohawk Valley, offered so much rich land.> <Although settlers had established themselves along the Hico, Eno and Haw rivers as early as the 1740s, they did not arrive in significant numbers along the Yadkin and Catawba until the following decade. In the 1750s Anson, Rowan, and Orange were the frontier counties of North Carolina. Many of the south-bound settlers from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia continued into the back country of south Carolina to the Savannah River. . . . The Creek and Cherokee Indian confederations temporarily blocked further settlement.> SOSIN:3-5

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:42:57 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26874
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26874


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<Embittered by the frauds perpetrated by English traders and incensed by enroachments by white settlers . . . they rose against the British in 1759, and in the ensuing two-year struggle neither the frontiersmen nor the militia of the southern colonies could suppress them. Finally, in 1761, 1300 British troops under Lieutenant Colonel James Grant and 1200 regulars under General Archibald Montgomery invaded the Indian country and left the Cherokee towns in smoldering ruins. Reduced to half their number by war and disease, the Cherokee were unable to resist effectively the westward advance of the British colonists for some years.> SOSIN:5-6

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26875
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26875


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<The famous Kentucky or Pennsylvania long rifle was an effective hunting piece and a deadly weapon in the hands of an expert with time to aim and fire, but it had serious limitations compared to the less accurate but more rapid-firing musket. Since the slender rifles did not have standardized barrels and could not mount a bayonet, they could not be used as shock weapons. Rifle fire alone could not stop a determined assault unless the frontiersmen enjoyed overwhelming superiority in numbers or were all crack marsmen. The sharpshooting frontiersman has been portrayed in romantic folklore and often in history as the conqueror of the Indian, but in reality, although the professional hunters were proficient with the rifle, as a whole the settlers were not.> SOSIN:7

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26876
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<Successful war against the Indians required an offensive by men trained to act in co-ordinated units. Attempts by frontiersmen to fight Indian fashion, as individuals or in loosely organized bodies, often resulted in indecisive encounters or in disaster for the whites. Perceptive commanders had to learn to employ trained troops, firepower, and mobility and to bring "power to bear that the Indians were never able to match."> Citing the example of Henry Bouquet's successful tactics at the Battle of Bush Run in 1763. SOSIN:8

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26877
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26877


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<Pontaic's war dramatically confirmed the hard lesson learned during the conflict with the French: if peace was to be maintained, the royal government must control frontier policy by providing for defense, regulating the Indian trade, and channeling expansion.> SOSIN:10

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26878
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26878


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Proclamation of 1763 and thus new treaties had to be negotiated: in the south culminating in the Treaty of Hard Labor, in the north the Treaty of Ft. Stanwix, both 1768. SOSIN:17-19

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:46:02 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26879
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26879


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Pressures for expansion: religious friction, promotion, tenant-landlord conflict; but the most pervasive of all was the pressure of an ever increasing population dependant upon crude agricultral techniques to till a limited area of land. Phenomenal birth rate and massive immigration. <The crude agricultural practices of colonial farmers precluded maximum or intensive use of land in the East and stimulated migration west, north, and southwest in search of new fields. Moreover, some land in the eastern and central portions of many colonies was covered with pine barrens, sand hills, and swamps and was not suitable for cultivation with the limited methods known to colonial farmers. Since the settlers were neither financially nor technologically equipped to improve the land, they simply followed the rivers inland to more suitable ground that could be cultivated with a minimum of time, effort, and expense.> There were also pressures to remove in the desire to endow the next generation with lands. SOSIN:20,23

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26880
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26880


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<Often it was difficult to distinguish between the roles of speculator and hunter or trader. . . Daniel Boone and John Finley while hunting in the wilderness served as agents for speculators who sought to engross much of Kentucky and Tennessee.> <The speculators of Orange County, North Carolina -- Richard Henderson, John Williams, and Thomas Hart -- . . . outfitted the hunting expeditions of Daniel Boone, Henry Skaggs, and John Finley. In 1765 Henderson sent Skaggs to the lower Cumberland and four years later dispatched Boone with four companions under the guidance of Finley for a two-year reconnaissance of Kentucky. Boone sounded out the Cherokee for the lease or sale of western lands.> citing Alvord, "The Daniel Boone Myth," in SOSIN:28

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26881
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26881


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<A coterie from back-country Orange County in North Carolina, Judge Richard Henderson, William Johnston, John Luttrell, Jr., John Williams, and the brothers Thomas and Nathaniel Hart in 1774 formed the Louisa Company. In January 1775 David hart, Henley Bullock, and James Hogg, the Scottish-born entrepreneur, also joined. Henderson and his associates issued a call for settlers for a proposed new proprietary colony, Transylvania. . . .> 3/14-17/1775 Sycamore Shoals treaty; <Employing the technique used by other speculators, Henderson sought to purchase from the Cherokee a region claimed by other tribes. Occonostota later accused him of misleading the prospective settlers. "You, Carolina Dick, have deceived your people. Why are you always telling lies? We told you that those lands were not ours, that our claim extended not beyond the Cumberland Mountains, and that all land beyond Cumberland River belongs to our brothers, the Chickasaw." The young war chief, Dragging Canoe, also warned him that Kentucky, claimed by the Shawnee, was "bloody ground and would be dark and difficult to settle. . . ."Despite these warnings, Henderson persisted, and with the lure of trading goods that he claimed were worth L10,000 -- which he never fully paid -- he prevailed on some of the older, infirm chiefs to sell the Kentucky and Cumberland basins. Almost immediately he dispatched Boone and a company of axmen to blaze the Wilderness Path from the Holston settlements through the Cumberland Gap. Early in the spring of 1775 Henderson himself led the first party to settle Boonesborough in Kentucky. The prediction of Dragging Canoe proved correct, for Henderson encountered strong opposition to his colony not only from the Shawnee but from the government of Virginia, which denied both the legality of his Indian title and his proprietary government.> citing deposition of Samuel Wilson, Draper 1CC161 in SOSIN:37-38

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:47:58 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26882
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<Basically, the disturbances in North Carolina were a reaction to the abuses of local government in a rural society that was still in a relatively primitive stage of economic development.> Rowan established 1753, along with other back country counties. But these were greatly underrepresented in the provinical assembly. Settlers had little control over local officials, named by governor-appointed county courts. <Prominent westerners with aspirations of their own who resented the domination of these oursiders, may have played on the dissatisfaction of the settlers.> <The back settlers resented threats to their land titles, excessive rents, the payment of taxes in a region short of specie, and the malpractices of county officials and lawyers, particularly the charging of excessive fees.> Rioting during session of the Halifax court at Enfield in 1759, again in Mecklenburg in 1765 where farmers manhandled a group of surveyors, and Brunswick, Cumberland and other counties in 1766 where farmers refused to pay taxes. 1768 in Orange settlers met to protest the method of collecting fees used by the sheriff, Tyree Harris; borrowed the name of the movement in SC; 4/8/1768 group of Regulators took over the Hilsboro court and fired on the house of Edmund Fanning. Militia called out, but the ringleaders pardoned. Regulators elected to assembly from western counties; petitions and demands; assembly cancelled. Violence again in summer of 1770, directed against Judge Richard Henderson at Hillsboro. 9/24-25/1770 Regulators took over the court, selected their own furors, clubbed sheriff Thomas Hart, attorney John Williams, and Fanning, plundered Fanning's home, broke village windows, terrorized inhabitants. Henderson, Tyree Harris, Francis Nash, fled. Led to Battle of Alamance on 5/16/1771, where Hugh Waddell defeated Regulators. Six hanged. <Before the outbreak of the Revolution, other Regulators had left their homes in despair and sought new frontiers in the Georgia back country across the Savannah, on the lower Mississippi [West Florida], and in the Watauga and Holston river settlements.> SOSIN:71-72

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:48:32 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26883
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26883


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<By 1768 settlers had reached the southern extremity of the valley of Virginia and the long parallel valleys west of the Alleghenies; to the northwest squatters had established themselves on Redstone Creek and other tributaries of the Monongahela and the Ohio. . . . It was not until the negotiations for new boundary lines with the Indians began in 1768, that the rush to the western region gathered force.> <A number of influential men settled on the lower valley and Holston frontiers at an early date. About 1769-70 Arthur and John Campbell moved to Wolf Hills (Abington); many of the friends and other neighbors from the Stauton region also migrated. Captain William Russell, who was the son of a well-known lawyer and had been educated at the College of William and Mary, founded "Castle's Woods" in the valley of the Clinch west of the Holston. William Preston moved from Staunton in 1773, establised himself at the Old Draper's Meadows site, and founded an estate, "Smithfield." From Frederick County in western Maryland came Evan Shelby who settled on the Holston in 1771. He advised his sons Isaac and John to purchase military rights and join him, hoping that other former officers would come to the new region. If they did, the Holston would be settled by "a much Better sort [of] People" than would ordinarily be the case. [citing Shelby papers] These early leaders on the Holston-New River frontier were related by marriage with almost all of the other inhabitants of the region who attained any prominence. Often educated and holding good positions, they had important connections with influencial eastern leaders in provincial politics.> SOSIN:73,74

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:49:04 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26884
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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RHENDERSON offered merchandise worth L10,000, <but which one observer described as only ten wagons loaded with "cheap goods, such as coarse woolens, trinkets, some firearms, and spirituous liquors," for an estimated twenty million acres.> [citing deposition of Samuel Wilson, Draper 1CC161] <In regard to Henderson's purchase at Sycamore Shoals in 1775, the Cherokee later informed Indian superintendent John Stuart, that they were unfamiliar with the papers they were prevailed upon to sign, having been told by the speculators that they were "talks" to the colonial governors relating to trade. Whatever the case, many of the younger warriors strongly resented the action of the older chiefs and refused to acknowledge the cession; so did the governors of Virginia and North Carolina who issued proclamations against Henderson. Yet it was the settlers themselves who were to suffer most from the ensuing confusion in Kentucky.> SOSIN:75-76

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:49:33 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26885
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26885


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Rival settlers from VA had preceded the Henderson group. <Foremost among them were surveyors in the employ of provincial officers with military bounties and land speculators from Virginia.> Capt. William Bullitt and Capt. James Wood represented VA officers; with them were George Rogers Clark and James Harrod. Col. William Preston, chief surveyor of Fincastle County VA had his deputy John Floyd in the field; working with Floyd were Isaac and Abraham Hite and the McAfee brothers from Botetourt county VA. Capt. William thompson represented PA veterans. Another contender was the Ohio Company of VA; William Crawford was its official surveyor with Hancock Lee as his assistant. Lee made extensive surveys in KY in 1775 for the Company. Surveyors were to meet opposition from squatters founding settlements at the same time the surveys were being run. They supplied the population for most of the new settlements. SOSIN:76-78

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:52:10 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26886
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26886


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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With other claimants on the ground, Henderson was faced with a dilemma: should he approve his rivals claims under the authority he claimed for himself, or disapprove and, in the continuation of their presence, risk the mockery of his enterprise. Each community to elect delegates after first consenting to bind themselves by the decision of the convention to obey the laws the representatives would pass and the proprietors would approve. But dissatisfaction quickly arose despite the smooth run of the election and convention. Transylvania sold land that might be obtained under settlers' rights if VA jurisdiction could be established; dissatisfaction greatest at Harrodsburg. New settlers from VA refused to recognize the validity of Henderson's title. The Harrodsburg convention choose Clark, a Virginian and land speculator, and Gabriel Jones, a VA land jobber and lawyer, to represent them to VA convention. SOSIN:80

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26887
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26887


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<So brutal had been the relations between the races that it was difficult at times to tell who had been the more savage. Both the Indians and the frontiersmen had resorted to indiscriminate murders and retaliation in the decade preceding the Revolution. The greatest menace to the stability of the frontier was often the aggressive, undisciplined settler himself. He regarded the Indian as an animal to be exterminated without fear of punishment from law officials.> According to George Croghan to Gen Thomas Gage, 6/17/1764: officials who ought to preserve the peace "rather encourage" the murder of Indians [Thomas Gage Papers]. <It was almost impossible to bring anyone to justice on the frontier for the murder of an Indian.> Examples: There was the famous 1763 murders of the Christian Delawares by the Paxton Boys in PA. In Augusta county VA in 1765 James Clendening and Patrick Duffy were apprehended, accused of murdering a passing Cherokee; they were freed by 100 armed men who broke into the jail, who swore that they would not allow a man to be jailed for merely killing an Indian; warrants for the arrest of the rioters were met with a proclamation from the "Augusta Boys" threatening vigilante violence against local officials. In Cumberland county PA in 1/1768, Frederick Stump and his eighteen year old servant John Ironcutter slaughtered six Indians (including 2 women) and hid their bodies under the ice of a river; they killed a mother, two girls and a baby the next day; Stump arrested by a militia officer, claimed self-defense; he was freed by a party of 70 armed settlers, and the officer was forced to flee with his family for fear of his life. SOSIN:82-84

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:53:21 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26888
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Cherokees and Shawnees directly involved in two incidents that brought on the war. 1) The attack on the Russell-Boone party attempting the settlement of KY in 1773 by <a party of Delawares who were returning from a mission to the Overhill towns with two Cherokee and two Shawnee interpreters.> 2) Spring of 1774, the attempt to survey KY basin by Bullitt and Thompson alarmed the Shawnees particularly. <With relations between the two races so tense, the subsequent actions of [John] Connolly and his strong-willed patron, Lord Dunmore, seemed almost calculated to force the Indians into some hostile act.> 4/30/1774 <a party of border ruffians led by Michael Greathouse lured a small band of Mingo across the river at Yellow Creek, plied them with liquor, and murdered all of them except for one infant -- men, women and children were indiscriminately slaughtered in the butchery that wiped out the entire family of Chief Logan.> Logan and some Shawnees retaliated against a few VA cabins, then declared themselves satisfied. But Connolly pushed for war. Dunmore mobilized the backcountry militia. SOSIN:85-86

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:53:59 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26889
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Three columns of militia: 400 men under Maj. Angus McDonald against the Shawnee town of Wapatomic; 1000 men under Col. Andrew Lewis to the mouth of the Kanawha; 1200 under Dunmore at Pittsburg to descend the Ohio. Engagement at Point Pleasant with 300+ Shawnees and Delawares on 10/10/1774; fighting to a draw, but with enormous losses on American side -- 81 killed, 140 wounded. Dunmore with Lewis marched to Shawnee towns on Scioto, but Shawnees sued for peace and agreed to remain north and west of Ohio river. SOSIN:86-87

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:54:26 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26890
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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But the first use of Indians in the Revolution must be credited to Massachusetts, who enlisted Micmac, Penobscot and Stockbridge for use against British at Boston; summer 1775 Gage first ordered use of Indians against frontier, citing the Massachusetts precedent, but Guy Carleton, governor of Canada, and John Stuart, northern Indian agent, did not implement them. British did not enlist the Indians on the frontier until the summer of 1777. SOSIN:87-92

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:55:01 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26891
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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As the conflict progressed, with confusion, massacres, lawlessness, the terms Tory and Patriot Revolutionary governments tended to put the Tory label on SOSIN:94

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26892
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Alexander McKee, Simon Girty, Matthew Elliot and four men escaped from Pittsburgh across the Ohio to the Indian villages and made their way to Detroit on 3/28/1778. They represented a considerable body of Loyalist sentiment in the upper Ohio and Monongalia country. SOSIN:95

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:55:50 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26893
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Summer 1779 Tories from the YADKIN raided the lead mines in Montgomery county; suppressed by William Campbell and William Preston who impressed many into Patriot forces, forced others to give security for good behavior. 1780 Tory uprising on New, Holston, Clinch, Nolichucky rivers; defeated at Ramseur's Mill. SOSIN:95-96

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:56:10 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26894
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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In NC The British governor, Josiah Martin, had pardoned Regulators, toured the backcountry, generally conciliated Regulators. In 1775 he assured assurances from the Regulator leadership in Anson, Surrey, Guilford, and Rowan counties of their devotion to the Crown. Samuel Johnston to Joseph Hewes, 6/27/1775: But deprived of their arms after the Battle of Alamance, and lacking effective Loyalist support, this came to little. SOSIN:100-101

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:56:33 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26895
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Kentucky was SOSIN:103

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:56:59 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26896
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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SOSIN:106-107

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26897
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1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Almost all informed American officials agreed that the most effective defense against Indian incursions would be a large-scale attack on the Indian villages, and more important, the elimination of such British centers as Niagara and Detroit. But a sustained offensive would require months of preparation and campaigning, at least two thousand well-trained men, artillery, scores of wagons and hundreds of packhorses, thousands of bushels of grain, hundreds of meat animals, and thousands of pounds of munitions. To control the Northwest the Americans needed a chain of advanced posts in addition to a large, well-provisioned and trained force. These conditions were not met on the frontier until more than a decade after the Revolution.> SOSIN:107

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26898
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26898


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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SOSIN:110

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:58:34 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26899
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26899


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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600 Delawares, 600 Shawnees, 300 Wyandots, 600 Ottawas, 5000 Chippewas, 400 Potawatomis, 300 Miamis, 1400 Sauk, Fox, and Iowa. SOSIN:105

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    Created: 8/9/2017 3:59:56 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26900
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26900


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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With the murder of Cornstalk, <a consistent friend of the whites since the outbreak of the war>, <the Shawnee took up the hatched against the Ohio frontiersmen whom they called "Long Knives" and early in 1778 began raiding the frontier.> Their decision was consolidated with the outrageous "Squaw Campaign" on the Cuyahoga river of General Edward Hand. SOSIN:111

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:00:23 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26901
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26901


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Identity very maleable and complex. In western PA, according to one observer, there were four categories: supporters of PA, supporters of VA, advocates of a new state, and the Tories. SOSIN:96

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:01:01 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26902
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26902


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<Another dynamic factor spurring western expansion was land speculation, the practice of acquiring virgin tracts at little or no cost and reselling or leasing them to settlers for a profit. Speculation was endemic.> SOSIN:24

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:01:25 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26903
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26903


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<Family migrations were . . . common on the . . . frontier. . . . Three generations of adventurous Boones moved as a family unit from Bucks County, Pennsylvania, to the Shenandoah, to the Yadkin country ow festern North Carolina, and finally [sic] to Kentucky, where they helped found Boonesborough.> Actually, from there, as a family, on to MO. <Few of the first pioneers in Kentucky were new to this type of family movement, and in many instances they represented the second or third generation of the westward migration.> SOSIN:40

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:01:58 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26904
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26904


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<Soil was being freely granted in the Carolinas and Georgia; this contrast to the cost of land in Pennsylvania and Virginia and the unprecedented Virgina land tax, not repealed until 1768, also drew the Scots-Irish into the southern back country.> SOSIN:43

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:02:25 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26905
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26905


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<By the early 1770s there were several distinct settlements [in western Virginia]: two north of the Holston, one in Carter's Valley, and the other near Long Island; and two south of the Holston, one at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga River and another on the Nolichucky.> In 1772 these pioneers negotiated an 8-year lease from the Cherokee chief Attakullakulla; they hoped to obtain permanent title when Henderson concluded the treaty at Sycamore Shoals, but were unsuccessful. SOSIN:74-75

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:02:52 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26906
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26906


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<The early settlement of Kentucky was the result of several diverse lines of expansion involving speculators from North Carolina and Virginia and the movement of people from those states and the Monongahela country. The dynamic elements in the early settlement of Kentucky were the landed magnates of Virginia, and to a lesser extent, the speculators from North Carolina who stimulated expansion and fastened their claims to the best lands long before the common settlers arrived in appreciable numbers.> SOSIN:75-76

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:03:20 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26907
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26907


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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North Carolinians predominated at Boonesborough, Monongahela men at Boiling Spring, Virginians at Harrodsburg and St. Asaph. SOSIN:80

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:03:48 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26908
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26908


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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After Peace of Paris in 1763 there <a vigorous boom in Florida real estate began almost immediately.> SOSIN:63

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:04:42 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26909
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26909


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Rev. John Brown to William Preston, 5/5/1775: <What a Buzzel is amongst People about Kentuck? to hear people speak of it one Would think it was a new found Paradise.> THWAITES3:10

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:05:10 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26910
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26910


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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1775 population fluctuated from 50 to 300 Americans. SOSIN:79

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:05:43 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26911
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26911


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Between 50 and 200 American fighting men available in 1776. SOSIN:109

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:06:10 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26912
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26912


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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SOSIN:120

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:17:19 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26913
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26913


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Col. David Williamson in 3/1782 led 300 frontiersmen from the Monomgahela to the Delaware villages on the Muskingum. At Gnadenhutten they seized and bound the Christian Indians; <on the pretext of discovering evidence left by hostile warriors at Gnadenhutten, the whites condemned the psalm-singing Delawares and tomahawked some ninety defenseless Indians -- twenty-nine men, twenty-seven women, and thirty-four children.> Then, in 6/1782, Col. William Crawford (Williamson having lost the election as commander by only five votes) led 500 men across the Ohio. <Possibly they hoped to complete the work begun at Gnadenhutten by finishing off the Moravians at Captives Town. Having previously taken much booty, they now brought with them coils of rope to pack their plunder and secure the horses they hoped to capture.> But instead they met 500 Wyandots, Mingos, Delawares, and Munseys as well as British rangers under Capt. William Caldwell. Crawford's men were decisively defeated, and many were killed or captured during an undisciplined retreat. Revenge was taken on the captured Crawford for the Gnadenhutten massacre: scalped him alive, laid hot coals on his head, roasted him over a slow fire. SOSIN:136

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:18:13 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26914
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26914


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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The inhabitants of Ruddle's and Martin's stations were mostly Germans who spoke no English; they surrendered and most either joined the British forces or accepted land and settled near Detroit and Niagara. SOSIN:137

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:18:47 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26915
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26915


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Unable to recruit volunteers, Clark closed the land office, placed a guard on the Wilderness Road to prevent anyone leaving Kentucky, and impressed a force. Gathered 1000 ill-equipped and poorly provisioned men at the mouth of the Licking; crossed the Ohio 8/1/1780, followed the trail taken by Bowman the year before; Girty brothers led a determined resistance at Chillicothe and Piqua; Clark withdrew. SOSIN:137-138

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:19:19 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26916
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26916


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Capt. Arent DePeyster sent out Indian raiders to keep the Kentuckians off balance. <The frontier militia of Kentucky, numbering some 1300 men, had an almost impossible task once the raids began: to garrison Fort Nelson [Louisville] at the Falls and at the same time to protect the defenseless women and children in the stations.> At the Blue Licks <the reckless frontiersmen fell into the trap. After drawing the fire of the Kentuckians, the Indians charged the disorganized militia and in the ensuing melee killed 140 of them and captured 100 rifles abandoned by the fleeing whites. Blue Licks was a disaster, for a disproportionately large number of those lost were both militia and civil officers. After recrossing the Ohio the warriors proceeded to Wakitamkie where McKee and Girty received orders from DePeyster prohibiting further incursions against the frontier. These instructions had been sent from England earlier that year in anticipation of the peace negotiations in Europe.> SOSIN:140

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:20:12 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26917
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26917


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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By 1778 depreciation of VA currency had convinced many leaders that they must obtain funds from the sale of lands in order to restore credit. 7/1779 land law recognized three types of claims: settlement and preemption rights, military warrants, and warrants purchased from the state treasury; also distinguished between settlers who occupied their lands before 1/1/1778 (to receive 400 acres at nominal price, and the right to preempt an additional 100 acres at the regular rate, L40 for every 100 acres), between 1/1/1778 and the enactment of the law (to preempt 400 acres at the regular price), and thereafter. No adequate provision for supervising surveys or for protecting the improvements of settlers who took up lands after passage of the act; aside from the priorities above, it was first come, first served. The land commissioners had nothing to guide them except the locations and surveys provided by settlers themselves. <Because of haphazardly drawn boundaries, the courts were kept busy with litigation for half a century.> Warrants were issued for 5-10X the amount of land available for entry. Emigrants since 1779, especially those down the Ohio from the Monongahela country, found the best lands already preempted. <In their anger, the recent arrivals at the Falls of the Ohio threatened to destroy the entry books of the land commissioners.> SOSIN:154-155

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:21:10 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26918
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26918


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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A good deal of bonded labor, both white and black. In 1780 when PA abolished slavery, a large number of owners moved their human chattel down the Ohio to KY <where they swelled the already significant slave population>. <A census taken in 1777 at Boonesborough, Harrodsburg, and St. Asaph's merely two years after their founding revealed that Negroes already constituted 10 percent of the total population.> <The fact that the Negro slaves constituted only a small percentage of the population during the initial period of settlement in the southern upcountry did not necessarily reflect the distaste of the pioneers for servile labor; it indicated that there was merely an initial lack of capital with which to purchase slaves. . . . In time as the pioneer farmers acquired more wealth, they were able to purchase Negroes. Those who could afford slave labor favored it as much as the coastal planters.> SOSIN:174-175

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:21:44 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26919
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26919


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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In 1776 VA extended its jurisdiction over all land granted by the charter boundaries of 1609 and denied the validity of purchases made from the Indians by private individuals. <But Virginia, and subsequencly North Carolina, each granted the Henderson Associates 200,000 acres on the Ohio and Green rivers in Kentucky and on the Powell and Clinch rivers in Tennessee in recognition of their expenses in opening the Kentucky and Cumberland valleys.> SOSIN:153

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:22:22 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26920
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26920


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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<The expansion of the frontier during the Revolutionary era did not bring any leveling tendency in political life. Whatever may have been the case on later frontiers -- settled when a more democratic trend was affecting the political structure of the nation as a whole -- between 1763 and 1783 the back-country gentry retrained their grip on local government. Their power was not often challenged.> SOSIN:171

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:22:51 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26921
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26921


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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11/1782 mustered almost the entire KY militia, 1050 men, crossed the Ohio, up the Great Miami; but unable to engage the Indians; by the 18th day of the campaign, his men had killed only 20 Indians. SOSIN:140

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:23:21 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26922
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26922


1967

Jack M. Sosin, THE REVOLUTIONARY FRONTIER, 1763-1783 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967)

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Extensive cultivation, quickly exhausting their fields and opening new ones. They needed relatively large holdings in land. SOSIN:173

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    Created: 8/9/2017 4:23:46 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20553-26923
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20553-26923














    

SourceNotes
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