Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: ALFORD:18-19

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:36:35 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27139
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27139


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: ALFORD:19-20

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:37:59 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27140
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27140


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: <The pronoun HE is used in speaking of the Great Spirit because there is no feminine gender in the Shawnee language. Men and women are spoken of as of the same gender, only the name of the individual contains the discrimination. Personal pronouns are neither masculine nor feminine, and most of them are mere affixes to other words.> ALFORD:19

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:38:32 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27141
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27141


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: <The training and teaching of the young . . . , formed an important part in the lifework of our people, and was not neglected even though the family had no fixed place of abode nor established household regulations. Men did not leave the training of their sons to their wives, as so many do today. In fact I believe that the men of our race take a greater interest in the training of their sons than do the white men with whom I have been associated. White men generally leave the moral training of their children to their wives, but pride of offspring is one of the strongest factors in the lives of our people. Every Indians father taught his sons those things he considered essential for him to know; every Indian mother sought to instill into her daughter's mind lessons she would never forget. Nothing was left to a public teacher or to chance; a parent felt his responsibility keenly.> ALFORD:20-21

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:39:03 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27142
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27142


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: ALFORD:23-24

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:39:23 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27143
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27143


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Corn 2: <Each kind of corn was especially desired for some particular food or dish. From the time the corn was in the roasting ear state, it was a favorite food, and there were many ways of preparing it, both for present use and for storing it to be used after the season for fresh corn had passed.> Preparations from roasting ears: favorite was called WES-KU-PI-MI: corn parched over hickory coals, which imparted a rich flavor, stored for winter use, cooked later in water, meat sometimes added for seasoning. NE-PAN-WI TAK-U-WHA (production bread): grated from the cob, producing a milky mush, poured into an iron oven or baking kettle with a close fitting lid, baked slowly until a solid cake. Preparations from ripe ears: TAK-U-WHA NE-PI (bread water): learned from the Muskogee Indians, using flinty varieties of corn, brayed in a deep mortar with a pestle until the skin was broken, separated from the kernels, put into a broad, shallow, woven basket (law-as-qah-thi-kq or wafter) and wafted in the open air until cleaned of all chaff; then boiled until kernels thoroughly cooked and became heavy white mass; small amount of wood-ash lye (seeping fluid) added, poured into a large wooded vessel, covered, set away until fermented; would then keep indefinately; tasted something like a sweet pickle, kept on hand and offered to visitors as a refreshing drink or food.> ALFORD:36-38 continued

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:40:04 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27144
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27144


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Corn 3:
File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:40:27 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27145
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27145


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: ALFORD:40

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:40:55 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27146
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27146


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: ALFORD:42

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:41:18 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27147
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27147


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Abundance of wild fruit in season: wild strawberries, dewberries, blackberries, cherries, plums, grapes, papaws, huckleberries, persimmons. Used mostly when fresh. Some fruits dried. Women made a persimmon bread (MUC-HAH-SEE-MI-NI TAK-U-WHA). PSG-IB-HAW (sour food -- a misnomer) made of wild grapes, slightly scalded so the thick, rich juice may be pressed from them, then heated, and while boiling dumpling dropped into it; sugar added when they had it. Made maple syrup and sugar when in the country of the sugar maple; but when outside its range, substituted soft maple, box elder, even hickory sap, although the products were not so good as sugar maple. ALFORD:40-42

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:41:42 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27148
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27148


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: <Contrary to the white man's idea of religion -- which seems to require a gloomy countenance when praying for a blessing -- the Shawnees believed that in order to obtain a blessing they should show a merry spirit and a contented countenance. Therefore when we sought a blessing it required an occasion when all were gay and cheerful, and we looked forward to the spring Bread Dance, as to our most festive occasion. The Bread Dance [TAK-U-WHA NAG-A WAY, when the Great Spirit would be implored to bless the people and provide them a bounteous crop and a prosperous new year] really opened the festivies of spring and summer, when all nature seemed to be rejoicing and happy. NOt until after this important ceremony would anyone venture to plant a crop of corn or undertake any important work.> The PEC-KU-WE clan was responsible for the organization of the Bread Dance; arrangements by two standing committess, one composed of 12 men, the other 12 women. Dancing by both young and old people. Event opens with a ball game, women versus men. Losing side provides the wood for the ceremonial fires. Tents are arranged ceremonially. Much visiting from other tribes around campfires, story telling. Women busy with cooking. Air filled with the odor of cooking food. Dance ground cleaned and marked off; west side for the singers; logs arranged as seats for those who tire of dancing. 12 man committee off hunting three days; return to great whooping and singing, and the dance begins. Met by the women's committee who take charge of the game and prepare it. Then a quiet breakfast while the game cooks. After several hours, the prepared game brought to the center, covered with a clean cloth; people gather, prayer offered by man versed in ancient customs. Great Spirit asked for abundant crops and for general welfare of the people, success in all their undertakings. This should be a wonder piece of oratory. Dance begins: women in compact form in front of singers, move with a slight swaying motion of their bodies right and left. Men and women poke fun of each other in their songs. Women: "the women conquer." Men "the men have conquered." Pleasant rivalry. All others join. Dance continues until late in the afternoon. In the evening the men and women dance together (frolic dancing). Until sunrise. Corn not planted until after this ceremony. ALFORD:57-61

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:43:51 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27149
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27149


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Notes that this was often considered merely poetical, but in fact it ALFORD:65-66

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:44:23 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27150
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27150


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s; Divisions of the Shawnee 1: Five clans: THA-WE-GI-LA, CH-LAH-GAW-THA, PEC-KU-WE, KIS-PO-GO, MAY-KO-JAY. The first two principal or national clans from either of which comes the principal chief of the nation as a whole, who is also the chief of his own clan. The rest are subordinate, each with its own chief, but whose authority does not extend ourside the clan. Much rivalry between the two principal clans, finally dividing the whole nation into two factions: Pec-ku-we and Kis-po-go allied with the Tha-we-gi-la, May-ko-jay with the Ch-lah-gaw-tha. During the years of intense warfare in the eighteenth century, the first group became more or less advocates of peace, the other held out for defense of the country at the cost of extermination. After the French defeat of 1763 there were several years of deliberations to determine the future policy of war or peace; but the Shawnee failed to agree. After the battle of Point Pleasant, where the chief Bucksinwa (father of Tucumseh) was killed, the actual separation of the peace advocates took place. The chief Kikuskawlowa (Kishkalwa) was unwilling to be any longer embroiled with the Americans, with whom he was well disposed, or to take any part in the coming struggles of the Revolution. He removed a great part of the Tha-we-gi-la clan to the south where they lived among the Creeks; later returned to Kentucky for a last time, from whence in 1785 they went to Spanish Terriroty west of the Mississippi (see their own statement in treaty council held in 1815 at St. Louis with William Clark). 1793 they were granted 25 sq. miles at Cape Girardeau. ALFORD 200-201 continued

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:44:49 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27151
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27151


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s; Divisions of the Shawnee 2: Spring of 1779 the rest of the Pec-ku-we and Kis-po-go clans (1200 men, women, and children) left from their principal town called Piqua (later known as Old Chillicothe or Old Town, Ohio) and elsewhere in the Ohio valley, and joined their brethren at Cape Girardeau. A final small party followed in a roundabout way, first to the south among the Creeks, where they were in 1792, thence to Cape Girardeau. This completed the emigration of the peace advocates -- then known as the Missouri Shawnee, now as the Absentee Shawnee. They took no part in the war of 1794 or that of 1812, nor otherwise been engaged against the Americans since 1774. Never received any annuities, always been self-supporting. Some of these left Capt Girardeau for Mexico, expecting to be able to return when they wished; but in 1825 the remaining Shawnees, known as the Black Bob band, exchanged this land for a 50 sq. mile tract on the Kansas River. The Mexican Shawnees settled in Texas, were granted a tract by the Texas Republic in 1835, but were later forced out and settled in what would become Indian territory. Meanwhile the Cha-lah-gaw-tha group of war advocates continued in Ohio, fighting the Americans; in 1831 they were removed (about 300 people) to the tract on the Kansas previously granted to the Missouri Shawnees. In 1854 they were forced to dispose of this land, originally granted to the Absentee Shawnee, without the approval of the later. All eventually ended up in Indian territory. ALFORD:202-203

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:45:15 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27152
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27152


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: ALFORD:47

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:45:43 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27153
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27153


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Green Corn dance and other ceremonial dances were "frolic dances," not considered obligatory. If a woman extends her hand to a man it is an indication that he is acceptable to her as a lover or husband; if he likes her he is at liberty to make further advances. ALFORD:61-62

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:46:24 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27154
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27154


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: ALFORD:26

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:46:50 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27155
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27155


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Outlaw white men would often raid the family of horses (they were living on the North Canadian River in Oklahoma). ALFORD:32

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:47:14 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27156
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27156


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Corn 1: ALFORD:35 continued

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:47:46 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27157
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27157


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Basketry: Hackberry or elm; barked section free from defects or knots; trunk pounded gently but firmly with the smooth flat edge of an ax, until layers of wood representing different years of growth became loosened and could be peeled from the trunk in narrow uniform stips in thin but strong sheets; these woven into baskets, leaving the spaces between the strips tiny or larger as needed for the purpose. Some woven to hold water, some as meal sifters, others to let corn kernels of a certain size pass through. "Marvelous, the ingenuity of those women! The making of those baskets was an arduous task, but baskets once made properly could be used for a long time. However, one of the commodities most eagerly sought after from the Indian traders was a white man's sifter" ALFORD:39

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:48:13 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27158
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27158


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: ALFORD:45

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:48:35 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27159
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27159


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Two men hunting together or happening to meet in the woods, the first game killed by a man was offered to the other: GI TAP-IL-WA-HA-LA (I enliven your spirit). NI-YA-WA (I thank you). <"In honor prefering one another" was the code of one Shawnee to another. . . . [There was no] pretense about it, just a natural, simple courtesy that existed, rather than was taught or exacted.> The only exception to this hunting rule was in ragard to the otter, which was not so offered; indeed, to so offer one was an insult. Does not know why. ALFORD:53

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:49:03 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27160
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27160


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Marriage usually arranged; no courtship as today. The yong people might reject the plans of their parents; no compulsion. But parential wishes usually respected. But some choice, as in the offering of hands at the dance. No formal marriage ceremony; but often a period of feasting to celebrate the couple moving in to their WE-GI-WA or cabin. ALFORD:67

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:53:21 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27161
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27161


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: ALFORD:55

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:53:44 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27162
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27162


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Mid-August was the time of the war dance (I-LA-NI-WAG-A-WAY), under charge of chief of the Kis-pu-go clan. Music louder and more martial, war whoops took the place of the softly crooned songs of the frolic dances. ALFORD:62

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:54:17 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27163
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27163


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: Fall dance closed the season; similar to Bread Dance, but took the form of thanksgiving ceremony. The winter was the time of visiting and story-telling around the campfires. ALFORD:62

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    Created: 8/10/2017 8:54:53 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27164
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27164


1936

Thomas Wildcat Alford, CIVILIZATION, as told to Florence Drake (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936).

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Thomas Wildcat Alford, an Absentee Shawnee, born in the 1850s: KUH-KOOM-THEY-NAH: Our Grandmother or Great Spirit. ALFORD:64

File: ALFRD.NT1



    Created: 8/10/2017 8:55:08 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20558-27165
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20558-27165














    

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