Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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2: <Most significant of all, they gave Boone this parting advice, which shows in clear and simple terms the Indian view of this invasion of their rights: "Now, brothers, go home and stay there. Don't come here any more, for this is the Indians' hunting ground, and all the animals, skins and furs are ours; and if you are so foolish as to venture here again, you may be sure the wasps and yellow-jackets will sting you severely." Thus is illustrated the truth of a statement made by a well-known historian of border warfare: "An Indian sees no difference . . . between the right of property, acquired by the actual cultivation of the earth, and that which arises from its appropriation to other uses." From the Indian standpoint the encounter had been handled with the utmost restraint and generosity. A destructive party had invaded the hunting grounds that had belonged to the Indians since the beginning of time and had begun a policy of butchering the game that eventually would have completely exterminated it and rendered the country useless to hunters. Indeed, this slaughtering of game in such a way that the meat was thrown away and theherds threatened with irreparable destruction must have excited in the Indian breast an attitude toward wastefulness akin to that of the whites, who considered the Indian wasteful and improvident of land. Moreover, the explusion of the intruders was accomplished without bloodshed -- without the hum and sting of the wasps and yellow jackets. He who remembers only the tales of Indian cruelties, of scalpings and torturings, might well ponder the significance of this treatment of these intruders into Kentucky, when the whites were sent back home well provided for by the red men. The whites, however, considered their treatment by the Indians an outrage -- a wanton destruction of the fruits of seven months' hunting. Boone immediately, but unsuccessfully, sought to recover his horses so that his hunt might still be fruitful with the aid of rifles and ammunition that could be brought back from the East. Repetition and retaliation were the only thoughts of the whites, who believed that they had as much right to hunt as the Indians. The rights of property and labor were at stake. Lyman C. Draper comments that Boone and his party had worked hard and suffered much hardship, that "the deer they had killed belonged no more to the Indians than to themselves, and as for the horses, guns and other articles, the Indians had not the shadow of a claim to them." [2B170]> DOWNES:10-13

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27210
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27210


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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<Beginning in the summer of 1765, white settlers poured into the Monongahela Valley. This produced a feeling of desperation among the Indians, especially the Shawnee and Delawares, that all but precipitated an Indian war in 1768.> In 1766 they complained of this invasion to George Croghan. He wrote: <As soon as the peace was made last Year, contrary to our Engagements to them, a number of our people came over the Great Mountain and settled at Redstone Creek & upon the Monongahela, before they had given the Country to the Kind.> If these squatters were not removed, <the Consequences may be dreadful, & We involved in all the Calamitys of another general War.> Governor Francis Fauquier of VA on 7/31/1766 proclaimed that all intruders were <immediately to evacuate,> and failing to do so could <expect no protection or mercy from Government, and be exposed to the revenge of the exasperated Indians.> Governor John Penn of PA on 9/23/1766 decreed the squatters beyond the mountains were <immediately to evacuate & abandon them> or suffer <the severest Penalties of the Law.> Yet these were ignored. Fauquier wrote to Penn on 12/11/1766: <I find with you, no Regard is paid to Proclamations, and I can expect no great good from them.> Indians complained again the next year that their people were being murdered by the Redstone squatters, and that game was being driven away. Troops were called out and, according to Capt. William Murray of Ft. Pitt, burned <as many Hutts as they could find,> but they did little permanent damage. George Croghan to William Johnson, Ft. Pitt, 10/18/1767: <Notwithstanding all the trouble that has been taken [to re]move the People settled on Redstone Creek, & Cheat [River] I am well Assured there are double the Number of Inhabi[tants] in those two Settlements that ever was before.> Gage to Penn, 12/7/1767: <As they met with no Punishment, we learn they are returned again to the same Encroachments on Red Stone Creek and Cheat River, in greater numbers than ever.> Gage to Shelburne, 10/10/1767: <All the People of the Frontiers from Pensylvania to Virginia inclusive, openly avow, that they will never find a Man guilty of Murther, for killing an Indian.> DOWNES:136-138

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:34:23 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27211
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27211


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Spring 1774 news all over the frontier of surveying parties, organized by Col. William Preston and others, bound for the Kentucky country. 3/8/1774 the Shawnees to Alexander McKee: pointed out the King's orders restricting settlement to east of the Great Kanawha River; pointed out that order was being violated; that their hunting grounds were being overrun; disapproved of retaliation by their own young warriors, but declared it beyond their power to prevent it, <for when they are disappointed in their hunting, and find the woods covered with the White People . . . they are foolish enough to make reprisals without waiting to apply to the great men that shou'd redress their complaints and regulate the conduct of their White Brethren towards them.> [citing NEW YORK COLONIAL DOCUMENTS 8:462] <Nobody could deny the justice of the Shawnee argument.> Lord Dunmore <was therefore called on the carpet for permitting and encouraging these aggressions.> His response, to Lord Dartmouth: He was unable to restrain the frontiersmen although he believed the government's position wise; <My Lord I have learnt from experience that the established Authority of any government in America, and the policy of Government at home, are both insufficient to restrain the Americans; and they they do and will remove as their avidity and restlessness incite them. . . . They do not conceive that Government has any right to forbid their taking possession of a Vast tract of Country, either uninhabited, or which Serves only as a Shelter to a few Scattered Tribes of Indians. Nor can they be easily brought to entertain any belief of the permanent obligation of Treaties made with those People, whom they consider, as but little removed from the brute Creation.> Consequently, he argued, there were only three possible recources: 1) <To Suffer there Emigrants to hold their Lands of, and incorporate with the Indians;> 2) <To permit them to form a Set of Democratical Governments of their own, upon the backs of the old Colonies;> or [the one adopted] 3) <To receive persons in their Circumstances, under the protection of Some of His Majesty's Governments already established.> <In other words, the only real obligation that the British had assumed in respect to the Shawnee, which was to stop settlement and surveying at the Kanawha River, was shown to be worthless. . . . It was a new demonstration of the age-old fact that in human affairs, might makes right.> citing THWAITES2:368-372 in DOWNES:154-155

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    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27212
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27212


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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George Washington to William Crawford, his agent in northwestern VA in 1767: Ditto in 1773: Had heard the Dunmore would grant patents for lands south of the Ohio, should survey without delay; had asked Thomas Bullitt, offical surveyor for VA to have 10,000 acres surveyed for him -- as near the Scioto as possible, but even as far west as the Falls of the Ohio. His survey made in spring of 1774, together with surveys for other eminents such as Patrick Henry, Col. William Christian, Col. William Preston, by the official surveying party under John Floyd. Shawnee to McKee: They captured Floyd's advance party and held them for three days, but let them go. Finally they struck and killed several men, causing Floyd to flee for the settlements. DOWNES:156-158

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:35:58 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27213
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27213


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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While Floyd surveyed, in 4/1774 George Rogers Clark was forming a company of adverturers from Wheeling, but were restrained by the accounts of Shawnee attacks on the surveyors. At Wheeling were crowds of expectant settlers, all touched with Kentucky fever. <Ever since 1772, when the British had abandoned the fort at this place, frontier anti-Indian sentiment had increased, and the settlement had become more and more the center of the disorderly elements that congregate in frontier towns on the eve of anticipated excitements.> Clark, Michael Cresap, and Dr. John Connoly, the agent of VA, were prominent among the "Indian haters," and were organizing for war on the Shawnees. In a series of incidents, a number of innocent Shawnees and Delawares were killed. Notable here was the murder of at least 8 Mingoes of Logan's band at Yellow Creek on the Ohio, some distance above Wheeling. Cornstalk, chief of the Shawnees, sent a warning letter to McKee stating that these outrages <so close to each other, Aggravated our People very much; yet we all determined to be quiet till we knew what you meant. . . . We Request that you will present our good Intentions to the Governors of Virginia, and Pensylvania, and request that a stop may be put to such Doings for the Future. . . . I have with great Trouble and pains prevailed on the foolish People amongst us to sit still and do no harm till we see whether it is the intention of the white people in general to fall on us.> At a council with McKee and Connolly at Pittsburg in May the Shawnees learned that Virginia intended to take Kentucky and would compensate the Shawnees; but the Shawnees said <We look upon it all to be lies.> At their own council held at Wakatomica on the Muskingum, where the murdered Shawnees had lived, the agrevied kinsmen were left to seek their vengence; with the Mingoes, under Logan, they set out to take revenge on Virginians south of the Ohio; they took 13 scalps to compensate for the 13 deaths they had counted among their own people. But this began the war. DOWNES:158-174 passim

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:36:48 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27214
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27214


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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VA militia were concentrated at three points on the Ohio: Pittsburg, Wheeling, and the mouth of Great Kanawah where a fort was constructed; these were to block Shawnee incursions south, and maintain the basic tenant of VA policy, the taking of the Kentucky country. An expeditionary force was mounted to burn the Shawnee towns. In late July Wakatomica as well as six Mingo towns were laid waste. There followed the Battle of Point Pleasant on 10/10/1774. In the peace that followed the Shawnee defeat, the nation yielded up its hunting rights in the Kentucky country, while the whites agreed to refrain from hunting north of the Ohio; DOWNES:174-177

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:37:36 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27215
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27215


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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After the conclusion of the FRENCHINDWAR alcohol became an even more important article of trade. William Johnson reported in 1770 that the Indians complained of quoted in DOWNES:133

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:38:33 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27216
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27216


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Despite the Proclamation of 1763, <little more than a year had passed before official plans were being made for a cession beyond the mountains. The particular sufferers in this respect were the Shawnee and Delawares, who from 1765 to 1774 were forced to go through the painful process of seeing a great part of their hunting grounds torn from them by the superior power of the British and the overbearing Iroquois.> Negotiations were conducted with the Iroquois, on the theory that they were defined as having power of determination over these lands by the right of prior conquest. In 1765 the Iroquois proposed ceeding land south of the Ohio as far west as the mouth of the Tennessee, claiming that the whole confederacy had agreed to it. <Time was to show that the Shawnee and Delawares were not going to sit idly by while the absentee overlords pocketed all the proceeds from the sale of Kentucky.> DOWNES:135

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:39:04 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27217
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27217


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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<The Indians most adversely affected by the treaty of Fort Stanwix were the Shawnee. . . . The treaty deprived the Shawnee of their most important hunting grounds, the Kentucky country. No other tribe received such a setback by the provisions of this treaty. It was not merely that the Shawnee received no part of the proceeds. It was also that the tribe was in danger of being deprived of hunting that was necessary for its very existence. The country that had been the ancient home of the Shawnee now became the object of the white hunters, settlers, and land speculators. From 1769, when Daniel Boone led the vanguard of the white invasion, to 1774, when the first settlers began to come in, the Shawnee looked on in sullen disapproval, their anger gradually mounting. In 1769 they told Boone to go home and not to bother them. In 1774 they found themselves obliged to resort to war.> DOWNES:143-144

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:39:36 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27218
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27218


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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<The Indians were entirely dependent upon the white men for firearms and their repair and for the needed ammunition. . . . The effect of the agreements of the rebellious colonists not to import goods from England augmented the prices of Indian supplies to a point that left the suspicious Indians without some of the necessaries to which they had become accustomed in payment for the products of their hunting. The general result was . . . that from 1763 to 1775, "instead of an increase in the number and value of furs and skins imported into England as a result of the French cession of the great fur-bearing regions of Canada and the Northwest," there was "a decided decrease each year."> quoting Alvord, ILLINOIS COUNTRY:274-277 in DOWNES:132

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:40:13 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27219
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27219


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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At the conclusion of the FRENCHINDWAR, at Ft Pitt, 5/10/1765; they cross the river beating drums and singing their peace song, with all their English captives; Lawoughwua, their spokesman: quoted in DOWNES:112

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:40:40 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27220
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27220


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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<During 1760 and 1761 the squatter invasion of the Monongahela Valley was particularly heavy.> Sgt. Angus MacDonald, commandant at Redstone (Brownsville) to Bouquet, 10/25/1761: <Here Comes Such Crowds of Hunters out of the Inhabitence as fills those woods at which the Indians seems Very much Disturbed and say the white people Kills all there Deer yet those hunters Keeps so far from the fort That I Cannot See Them nor Can I send after Them. I have taken Some of there horses but Cannot take themselves. If your Honour would be pleasd to Send an Advertisement which I Could Set up at the Great Crossings to give them Notice Then I Could Handle them more Ruffer if they Should Come again.> Bouquet then issued his proclamation of 10/30/1761 forbidding hunting or settling west of the mountains and ordering officers discovering violators to deliver them to Ft. Pitt for trial by court martial. The only effect was to make the hunters more wary. Bouquet to Governor Francis Fauquier of Virginia 2/8/1762: <For two years past these Lands have been over run by a Number of Vagabonds, who under pretence of hunting, were Making Settlements in several parts of them.> 4/1/1762 word received in Pittsburg that two settlers above Redstone had been murdered in the cabins. James Kenny, an Indian trader at Pittsburg: <It Grieves ye Indians to see ye White People Settle on these Lands & follow Hunting or Planting, especially in Virginia side & off ye Road too.> <So far as these Indians were concerned, land aggression was the main grievance in determining their participation in Pontiac's War.> DOWNES:113-114

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:41:46 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27221
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27221


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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James Kenny, an Indian trader at Pittsburg, confided in his journal in 1/1763, that the Indians could not be blamed for reseting the treatment they received from the frontiersmen: quoted in DOWNES:115

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:42:23 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27222
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27222


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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In 1772 William Crawford, frontier land speculator, wrote to George Washington from the West that there were so many men there eager for land that they were stealing it from each other [let alone the Indians]: <As soon as a man's back is turned another is on his land. The man that is strong and able to make others afraid of him seems to have the best chance as times go now.> quoted in DOWNES:156

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:43:19 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27223
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27223


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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<The main bone of contention between the whites and the Shawnee was the Kentucky country.> William Johnson to Lord Dartmouth, fall/1773: Shawnees were in a great state of alarm over the large numbers of Virginians settling Kentucky; they were frontiersmen <with a general Prejudice against all Indians and the young Indian Warriors or Hunters are too often inclined to retaliate.> DOWNES:153

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:43:46 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27224
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27224


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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But being forced to support the French the Indians DOWNES:79-81

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:44:56 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27225
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27225


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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At the treaty of Lancaster in 7/1748 were brought again within the system of the Pennsylvania traders. The French and their Indian allies then went to war against the Shawnees to try to force them into the French system. They appealed to PA for help, asking that <you speak to us . . . and that you don't speak for nothing," but PA did little. The place of PA was partly filled by VA. Christopher Gist, agent for the Ohio Company, was among the Shawnees from 10/1750 to 6/1751, and invited them to Logstown for a treaty. At that meeting, in 6/1752, the VAs agreed to build a "strong house" at the forks of the Ohio and obtained Indian agreement to the cession of upper Ohio lands for settlement. That this was not clear to the Indians is indicated by the Iroquois comment that "settlement of People" was not wanted, and that the Indians would supply the fort. The fortifications did not begin until the French had begun to make a similar move. Thus to the story of Washington, Gist and Le Boeuf. DOWNES:42-65 passim FRENCHINDWAR <the bloodiest in the history of Anglo-Indian relations.> DOWNES:76

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:47:18 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27226
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27226


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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BRADDOCK <defeat was the occasion for the French forcing the western Pennsylvania Delawares and Shawnee, against their will, to take up the hatchet against the English.> According to James Kenny, Indian trader at Pittsburg from 1759-63, at Braddock's defeat there were <not One of ye Delawares & only four Mingoes & three Shawanas, all ye Rest Northrn Indians.> quoted DOWNES:76,76
FRENCHINDWAR FORBES To the Indians <Forbes's expedition meant the complete restoration of the West to the dominion of the Indian tribes and . . . their rejoicing was more on their own account than it was on the account of the British.> DOWNES:94

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:47:56 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27227
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27227


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Gov. Thomas of PA to PA Assembly, 1744: PENNSYLVANIA COLONIAL RECORDS 4:737-740 quoted in DOWNES:39

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:48:28 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27228
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27228


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Shawnee chiefs Loyparcowah, Newcheconer, and Coycacolenne wrote to Governor Penn and James Logan in 1738 that at a council at Chartier's Town the year before, the Shawnees had decided in the hope that Two traders, Peter Chartier and George Miranda were present and agreeable to the ban. In March of 1738 they held a ceremony in which about 40 gallons of rum were and a hundred men took the pledge. The Governor was asked to cooperate by issuing to prohibit PENNSYLVANIA ARCHIVES 1st series 1:549-552 quoted in DOWNES:35

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:48:55 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27229
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27229


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Shawnee chiefs to the PA Council, 8/10/1737: Every year the French sent them They could not return east, because there Therefore DOWNES:34

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:49:20 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27230
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27230


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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By 1745 they had gone over to the French. The unregenerate PA traders were the objects of their hostility. In the spring of that year several traders were met by several hundred armed Shawnees led by Peter Chartier; they were robbed of their goods. Then the Shawnees migrated lower down the Ohio. DOWNES:40-41

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:49:40 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27231
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27231


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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DOWNES:33

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:50:10 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27232
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27232


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Four Shawnee chiefs to Governor Gordon of PA, 4/24/1733: PENNSYLVANIA ARCHIVES, 1st series, 1:394 quoted in DOWNES:31

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:50:34 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27233
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27233


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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To PA attempts to get them back to the east, two Shawnee chiefs, Opakethwa and Opakeita told the Pennsylvania Council 9/30/1732 that PENNSYLVANIA COLONIA RECORDS 3:462 quoted in DOWNES:30

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:51:04 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27234
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27234


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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In 1692 those from the lower Cumberland valley began a migration to the Delaware and Susquehanna valleys; eventually all the Shawnees reassembled there. They avoided the upper Ohio valley, probably out of fear of the Iroquois who had only recently dispersed the Erie. The Delaware and Susquehanna valleys combined good trading with immunity from French attacks. And they were also attracted by the policy of PA. But it was not long before they began to move to the upper Ohio; [19]. They settled in great numbers in western PA from 1720-45. They centered at Chartier's Town, near present-day Tarentum in Allegheny county, at the terminus of the Shamokin, Frankstown, and Raystown trails. Here they fell under French influence. [26]. DOWNES:16-26

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:51:26 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27235
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27235


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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SHAWNEES were greatly afflicted in 1762 by a plague that killed from 100 to 150 men (women not counted). DOWNES:115n

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:51:48 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27236
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27236


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Accepting the Iroquois cession at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the British ministry in 1769 announced that it would countenance no settlement west of the Great Kanawha. DOWNES:143

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:52:27 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27237
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27237


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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1: When the Iroquois ceded to the English their rights to the country south of the Ohio river, the Shawnees, who hunted in the reion, were not consulted. <As the white hunters began to appear in these hunting grounds, the Shawnee, in defense of what they considered their rights, made resistance. One of the first of these white hunters was Daniel Boone. It has been customary for historians to laud the skill and self-reliance of this rugged frontiersman and to point with pride to his service in blazing a trail for civilization into Kentucky. As a matter of fact, Boone's hunting and exploring was more destructive and hateful to the Indians than the buccaneering of Drake and other Elizabethan sea dogs was to the Spaniards of another generation. For Boone and his "long hunters" threatened to wipe out the game of the forest -- the very essence of the domain over which the Indians considered themselves rulers. When the Shawnee party, led by the chief Captain Will, suddenly surprised Boone and Stewart in Kentucky in 1770, they <immediately noticed the telltale evidence of wastful hunting and "sternly demanded" that the traders "show their camps." . . . Having thus rendered Boone's expedition fruitless, the Shawnee, with true Indian generosity and consideration, "dismissed their captives, presenting each with two pairs of moccasins, a doe-skin for patch-leather, a little trading gun, and a few loads of powder and shot, so that they might supply themselves with meat on their way back to the settlements."> continued

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:53:08 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27238
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27238


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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DOWNES:5

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:53:46 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27239
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27239


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Sir William Johnson wrote in 1774 that <for more than ten years past the most dissolute fellows united with debtors, and persons of a wandering disposition> had been migrating from PA and VA into Indian territory. He called them idle persons who occupied themselves with hunting <in which they interfere much more with the Indians than if they pursued agriculture alone, and the Indian hunters . . . already begin to feel the scarcity this has occasioned, which greatly encreases their resentment.> NEW YORK COLONIAL DOCUMENTS 8:460 cited in DOWNES:14

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:54:28 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27240
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27240


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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During most of the 17th century existed in two widely separated groups: one in the lower Cumberland River valley and the neighboring Illinois country; the other on the South Carolina frontier. DOWNES:9

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:55:01 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27241
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27241


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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<Knowing only the simpler arts needed to sustain a small population in a state of nature, they were no match for those whose arts were capable of harnessing nature to more effective uses in sustaining large units of population.> DOWNES:15

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    Created: 8/10/2017 9:55:25 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27242
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27242


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Ordinance of 10/15/1783 Congress proposed its interpretation of its new boundary -- north of the Ohio and east of the Miami -- and its justification for expropriation and dispossession. <For imperial aggressiveness and outright effrontery this document takes a fron rank in the annals of American expansion. To the Indians it could mean nothing less than an open declaration of war. . . . Congress announced that the Indians, by breaking their pledges of neutrality given in 1776, and by supporting the British cause, had forfeited all rights to their lands. It was further asserted, however, that the United States was willing to be generous and would insist on the cession of only part of these lands. "As the Indians," the ordinance read, "notwithstanding a solemn treaty of neutrality with Congress at the commencement of the war . . . could not be restrained from acts of hostility and wanton devastation . . . so consequently with a less generous people than Americans, they might be compelled to retire beyond the lakes, but as we prefer clemency to rigor . . . & as we are disposed to be kind to them, to supply their wants and partake of their trade, we from these considerations and from motives of compassion draw a veil over what is passed, and will establish a boundary line between them and us, beyond which we will restrain our citizens from hunting and settling." Congress could not afford to be too aggressive. Although the annexation might be allowed to be offensive to the Indians it should not be so grasping as to bring the forest natives in united and confederated force upon the frontiers in a general Indian war. The lands of the Northwest must therefore be occupied by degrees.> <The reception given by the Indians to the instructions concerning their explusion was so hostile that General Philip Schuyler in a letter to Congress on July 29 had immediately advised a retraction to avoid an Indian war, and his advice was given more weight by the strong endorsement of General Washington. The commander-in-chief had become firmly convinced that the United States could accomplish a more effective destruction of Indian civilization by a modified advance than by a complete occupation of all the Indian lands, which could only be accomplished through the suppression of a general Indian uprising.> DOWNES:284-285

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:00:27 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27243
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27243


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Shendeta, Wyandot chief, at the Treaty of Ft. Harmar, 12/1788; he tells the following story, which he said was his "dream;" it was later reported as traditional among the Shawnee: The Delawares first encountered the British, who begged for a little ground large enough to make a fire on, only as big as one cow hide could cover. When permission was given, the British offered the Delawares a drink, which made them When the Delawares came to their senses, they declared: The British denied this, but soon proposed to buy more land, as much as a man could walk in a day, then hired the swifest runners to deceive the Delawares again. He concluded: DOWNES:307

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:01:09 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27244
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27244


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Raids into Kentucky continued into 1786; although mostly carried out by Mingos and Cherokees, the Shawnees were blamed by the frontiersmen for tolerating these attacks. The Shawnee rejection of the Treaty of Fort Finney provided the excuse for another plunder-seeking raid against the Shawnee towns. 10/1786 Logan proceeded against them for having broken the treaty; descended upon the towns of the Great Miami; burned seven towns, killed 10 chiefs, did much damage to crops and livestock. <And as if this unjust attack were not enough, the Shawnee were made victims of a disgraceful incident that took place on the expdeition -- the murder of Melanthy [Moluntha], friendly Shawnee chieftain, under a flag of truce.> Col Harmar, 11/15/1786: <Melanthy would not fly, but displayed the thirteen stripes, and held out the articles of the Miami [Fort Finney] treaty, but all in vain; he was shot down [sic] by one of the party, although he was their prisoner.> <From that time until the battle of Tippecanoe the Shawnee were determined to deliver their people from such insults, and the Indian confederacy had no more loyal supporters than the Shawnee nation -- the people of Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet.> DOWNES:298

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:01:51 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27245
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27245


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Treaty of Fort Finney, 1/1786 Terms: retention of hostages until the return of all prisoners; acknowledgement by the Shawnees that the US was sovereign over all lands ceded by Great Britain; recognition of US as protectors; all crimes, even those committed on whites by Shawnees in their own country, to be punished by American law; grant to US of all Shawnee claims east of Great Miami. Chief Kekewepellethe responded: It was The American commissioners responded that the Shawnees would have to submit or be destroyed: Kekewepellethe: But the methods of intimidation employed here were viewed by the Shawnee as justification for their subsequent repudiation of this agreement. DOWNES:297-298

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:02:33 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27246
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27246


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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The British planned to continue supporting the Indians, because it wanted to continue to reap the profits of the fur trade. <The British knew that the Indian nations were as determined as even the proudest white nations could be to protect their hunting grounds from invasion. They knew that a contest for Indian rights would be far bloodier than the Revolutionary one because the Indians would be unrestrained by the British.> Haldimand to Lord North, 10/19/1783: <In case things are carried to extremities, the Indians seem determined to defend themselves and to make the Americans feel the difference of a war carried on in their own manner from the late one, which was subject to the restraints imposed upon it by His Majesty's officers.> "The Haldimand Papers," MICHIGAN PIONEER AND HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS, 11:355 in DOWNES:280

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:04:00 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27247
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27247


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Americans to Iroquois at Fort Stanwix treaty, 10/1783: <You are mistaken in supposing that . . . you are become a free and independent nation, and may make what terms you please . . . . You are a subdued people. . . . When we offer you peace on moderate terms, we do it in magnanimity and mercy. If you do not accept it now, you are not to expect a repetition of such offers. . . . We shall now, therefore declare to you the condition, on which alone you can be received into the peace and protection of the United States.> DOWNES:291

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:04:32 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27248
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27248


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Americans to Wyandots and Delawares, treaty of Fort McIntosh, 1/1785: DOWNES:294

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:04:57 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27249
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27249


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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4/1783 the Wyandot appealed to Arent De peyster, commandant at Detroit: <We don't know how to act 'till we hear from you, and as we have gone on hand in hand together, we hope to continue so, and that you'll not allow your poor children to be crushed under the weight of their enemies, but we expect you will be so good as to call the rest of your children about you, letting them know how its like to be with us, and that we want their assistance as soon as possible. We are likewise in hopes to see you here on this ground with as many of your own People as can be spared . . . for Father depend upon it we have great reason to expect them [the Americans] shortly -- Father! Should a Treaty of Peace be going on we hope your children will be remembered in the treaty.> "Haldimand Papers," MICHIGAN PIONEER AND HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS 11:355 in DOWNES:279-280

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:05:43 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27250
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27250


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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<By the treaty of peace the Americans were relieved of a tremendous restraint. Racial hatred on the frontier, fed by the memory of the bloodshed of years of war, could now find a freer vent; vengeance could be taken; and reparations could be demanded in the form of cessions of land. . . . Thus in the very months in which the treaty was being negotiated, Clark and his Kentuckians were going ahead with their preparations for an expedition against the Shawnee towns in retaliation for the massacre of the Blue Licks.> 11/1/1782 crossed the Ohio with 1000 volunteers; to Chillicothe in 10 days; 6 villages put to the torch; 10,000 bushels of corn and quantities of provisions destroyed; Logan's detachment destroyed the store of British supplies at the portage at head of Great Miami. DOWNES:278-279

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:06:46 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27251
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27251


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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DOWNES:271-272

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:07:34 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27252
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27252


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Moravian massacre at Gnadenhutten. Col. David Williamson, leading the Washington county militia north of the Ohio, <found at the town of Gnadenhutten, near Coshocton, ninety unfortunate Moravian Delawares who, to avoid starvation in their camps on the Sandusky, had returned for some of the stores abandoned in their sudden migration the year before. Williamson also found four hostile Indians with the Moravians and unmistakable evidence that belligerents who had committed some of the recent outrages had been at Gnadenhutten. These discoveries apparently produced a surge of frenzied wrath in the frontiersmen, and on the morning of March 8, 1782 [3/8/1782], the ninety Indians were slaughtered.> DOWNES:272

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:08:27 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27253
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27253


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Joseph Brant, 1788: <The Shawanese, Miamis, and Kickapps . . . are now so much addicted to horse-stealing that it will be a difficult task to break them of it, as that kind of business is their best harvest. . . .> quoted DOWNES:304
INDIANS LAND <The defeat of St. Clair was a complete justification to the Indian mind of the insistence by the confederacy on the Ohio River boundary.> DOWNES:320

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:09:18 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27254
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27254


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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<The more closely the situation at Pittsburgh in the fall of 1780 is analyzed, the more convincing is the conclusion that the frontier might have gone over to the British if the latter had been successful in the East. . . . Disaffection among the inhabitants was wide-spread. Col. Daniel Broadhead, commanding the American garrison at Ft. Pitt reported on 9/23/1780: <Should the Enemy approach this frontier & offer protection, half the Inhabitants would join them.> On 12/7/1780: <I learn more and more of the disaffection of many [of] the inhabitants on this side [of] the mountain. The King of Britain's health is often drunk in companies; & I believe those wish to see the Regular Troops removed from this department, & a favorable opportunity to submit to British Government.> Desertions wer frequent; impossible to find new recruits among the population. DOWNES:263

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:09:56 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27255
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27255


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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In 10/1779 a five boat convoy of provisions and supplies ascending the Ohio from New Orleans was attacked at the mouth of the Licking by 130 Indians led by Simon Girty; killed 40 Americans and carried off prisoners. Plundered and sunk. DOWNES:256

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:10:22 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27256
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27256


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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When Clark captured Cahokia, he announced to the inhabitants [This should be compared to the plunder motive, which was paramount in nearly all the expeditionary forces mounted against the Shawnee towns.] quoted in DOWNES:232

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:10:47 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27257
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27257


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Bowman campaign of 1779. Bowman led some 300 men from Kentucky. The first news of his approach to the Shawnee towns on the Miami sent the Shawnees rushing to the defense of their homes. DOWNES:225,247

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:11:17 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27258
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27258


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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New series of ferocious Indian attacks in the spring of 1783. DOWNES:286

File: DWNS2.NT2



    Created: 8/10/2017 10:12:05 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27259
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27259


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Plans were made to take the war to the Shawnee towns after the successful defense of Fort Donnally. The first instance of this new policy was a campaign waged against the Delaware towns on the Beaver River; but the force of 500 militia found only families, and succeeded in killing only women and children. This infamous "squaw campaign" further infuriated the Indians they rededicated themselves to war against the Americans. DOWNES:209-210

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:12:32 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27260
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27260


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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In the aftermath of Cornstalk's murder in 11/1777 Focus of Shawnee attacks was Point Pleasant and the settlements on the Great Kanawha and its branch, the Greenbrier. 5/16/1778 they besieged Fort Randolph for a week; failing in taking the fort, they destroyed livestock and moved upriver to attack Fort Donnally on the Greenbrier. Despite much burning, looting, and killing, the Indians were unsuccessful in taking either fort, and returned to their towns over the Ohio. [It was these returning warriors that DB encountered during his saltmaking trip to the Scioto with the Shawnees from Chillicothe.] DOWNES:207-209

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:13:09 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27261
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27261


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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murder of Cornstalk When the Shawnee chief heard of a projected American invasion of the Mingo towns, in early 11/1777 he went to Capt. Matthew Arbuckle, commandant of Fort Randolph at Point Pleasant, according to Arbuckle, <with strong protestations of friendship . . . to know the reason of it,> arguing that this would force the whole Shawnee nation into war with the patriots. Arbuckle decided to hold Cornstalk as a hostage against the continued good conduct of his peace-faction of the Shawnees, despite the fact that, according to one participant, he had come <to prevent his brethren from again involving themselves, in a war with the whites.> Eight days later the chiefs son, Elinipsico, came to inquire about his father's detention, and he too was made hostage. On 11/10/1777 a party of militiamen, one of whose companions had been ambushed and killed by unknown Indians that day, rushed to the fort in order to vent their anger against these hostages. <As they approached the cabin in which the hostages were held, the interpreter's wife ran to the Indians to inform them that they were about to be killed. It is said that the young warrior, realizing his fate, "trembled exceedingly" and that Cornstalk "told him not to be afraid, for the great Spirit above had sent him there to be killed." With the death of these Indians the friendship of the Shawnee nation for the Americans perished forever.> <When the men accused [of this crime] were finally, through the insistence of Governor Henry, brought to trial in April, 1778, in the court of Rockbridge County, Virginia, they were acquitted because there were no witnesses against them.> DOWNES:206-207

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:13:58 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27262
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27262


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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By 1777, with the St. Lawrence again opened, the British were making full use of their ability to better supply the Indians. Instructions sent to Gov. Hamilton at Detroit directed that he should assemble as many Indians as he could, place officers in charge to <restrain them from committing violence on the well affected and inoffensive Inhabitants,> but <employ them in making a Diversion and exciting an alarm upon the frontiers of Virginia and Pennsylvania.> London to Hamilton, 3/26/1777, "Haldimand Papers," MICHIGAN PIONEER AND HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS 9:347 in DOWNES:195

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:14:47 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27263
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27263


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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By spring of 1777 the Mingos had converted a number of Shawnees to their campaign of terror in Kentucky, <largely because of the supplies available to all Indians from the British and because of the general expectation for the success of the plans of Burgoyne and his colleagues.> <The Shawnee nation was split asunder on the issue of joining the Mingo. There is no direct evidence to prove whether or not the disaffected group deliberately aspired at this time to reconquer the Kentucky hunting grounds, lost in Dunmore's War, or whether the British had as yet made them any promises in this connection. The peaceful and pro-American group was represented by the famous chief, Cornstalk.> The Delawares were also divided, although <not so great as the Shawnee.> The raids that began in early 1777 against the KY stations, including Boonesborough, were carried out by mixed bands of militants including Mingos, Delawares, Wyandots, and Shawnees. DOWNES:197-198

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:15:42 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27264
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27264


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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7/1776 <a small war party of Cherokee and Shawnee, returnign to the North after the severe defeat administered to the Cherokee by the Virginians at the battle of Long Island, killed two whites and captured the daughters of Colonel Callaway and Daniel Boone in Kentucky. Upon hearing of this, Captain Matthew Arbuckle, Virginian commandant at Fort Randolph [Point Pleasant], sent emissaries to the Shawnee town, who brought back the Shawnee chief with a report that the Kentuckians had recaptured the girls and had taken ample revenge by killing two Shawnee. He disavowed the act of his tribesmen and promised lasting peace. But Arbuckle put little faith in his words. "The peace with them," he said, "I Look upon it not to Be Lasting and am Ever on My Guard for fear of a Surprise, and the Trader's Gets Quantitys of Goods from the English at Detroit and has for Some time."> <But although . . . it was apparent that the Shawnee nation desired to be peaceful, the haunting fear of attack from these Indians nevertheless persisted on the frontier, chiefly because it was known that the belligerent Cherokee had lately offered the tomahawk to the Shawnee.> DOWNES:190

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:16:47 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27265
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27265


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Their raiding DOWNES:191

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:17:30 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27266
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27266


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Treaty of Pittsburg, 9-10/1775, between Virginia and the Second Continental Congress on the one side, the Six Nations, Delawares, and Shawnees on the other: <the main accomplishment was the exclusion of the Shawnee from Kentucky and the establishment of the Ohio River boundary.> This boundary <was to become the major bone of contention in Indian arrairs and was not finally abandoned by all the tribesmen until the treaty of Greenville in 1795.> DOWNES:184

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:18:09 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27267
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27267


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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DOWNES:179

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:18:37 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27268
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27268


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Invasion of Canada in 1775 blocked the St. Lawrence and depleted stocks of Indian powder and other supplies at Niagara and Detroit, and kept the British from enlisting the Indians full-scale in the war against the patriots. DOWNES:182

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:19:09 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27269
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27269


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Shawnees, Miamis, and Kickapoos represented the <extreme left wing> of the Indian resistance, while the Senecas, Delawares, and Wyandots were on the right. [But remember that the peace faction of the Shawnees had already split from these, and removed to MO.] DOWNES:303

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:19:42 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27270
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27270


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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<The greatest British-Indian army raised in the course of the Revolution in the Northwest turned aside from its objective, the destruction of Wheeling, and centered its attentions on Kentucky. The bloody defeat of the Americans at the Blue Licks in August was the result of this effort.> DOWNES:274

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:20:26 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27271
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27271


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Another word for Americans, besides "Long Knives," was "Buckskins." DOWNES:193

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:22:54 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27272
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27272


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Second Treaty of Pittsburg, 11/8/1776, with Senecas, Delewares, and Shawnees; Col. George Morgan reported that these tribes had resolved <to preserve inviolate the peace and neutrality they have engaged in with the United States.> The Shawnees agreed to warn the Americans of the plans of the Mingos. DOWNES:194

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    Created: 8/10/2017 10:23:36 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27273
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27273


1940

Randolph C. Downes, COUNCIL FIRES ON THE UPPER OHIO: A NARRATIVE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE UPPER OHIO VALLEY UNTIL 1795 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1940)

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Militia troops always called "rangers." DOWNES:256


File: DWNS2.NT2



    Created: 8/10/2017 10:24:05 PM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20563-27274
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20563-27274














    

SourceNotes
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