William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Divisions over war and peace. The defeat of the French in 1763 <awakened their minds to the power of the English, and aroused important discussions among them as to what should be done for the future welfare of the Shawnee nation in order that it might survive. Secret councils were held among the several clans of the nation regarding the meaning of their tradition, pertaining to their several MEESAWMIS [sacred objects, said to be given by the Great Spirit, symbolizing the special duty of each clan], which grew out of the sides taken by the clans in the war for and against the English. Many warriors were for continuance of opposition and war against them and their allies, while other chiefs were for living in peace with them. Evidently a disagreement finally took place, which caused their final division into two factions. Each was headed by one of the two chief clans -- Thawegila and Chalahgawtha -- as it is today. This division may almost be likened to the denominations among your people, who, however, barely mentioned this, and only in common parlance, as "medicine," whatever that means. In these secret councils, which lasted for several years, no outsider was permitted, and only the chiefs of the MEESAWMIS and those specially instructed and deputized for that purpose took part. The Peckuwe clan had a Council-house, or Msi-kah-mi-qui, at the Peckuwe Town on the Little Miami, (afterwards Chalahgawtha Town), where at times these councils were held.> Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:39-40

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:15:19 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28005
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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From a treaty council held in St. Louis in 1815 between William Clark and the Thawegila Shawnee (Absentee Shawnee): <Brothers, it is thirty years since we came to this country. When we arrived among the Spaniards to look for a suitable piece of land to settle ourselves on, and after we found a place we liked, we informed the Spanish officer of it, and that we inteded to settle ourselves there.> Were granted 25 square miles of land near Cape Girardeau by Baron de Carondelet in 1793. They were joined by the Peckuwe and Kispoko clans in 1779, who migrated with 1200 from Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami. Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:40-41

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:15:41 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28006
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami: <An Indian village of the Shawnee type was easily rebuilt. It consisted of tepees, requiring poles, bark and skins. Huts were built of round logs, a single room roofed with bark. There were no chimneys or windows. If fire was used inside, the bark roof pieces were shifted so a draft could be obtained and the smoke escape. A single entrance was closed when desired, or in bad weather, by buffalo or other pelts. The white pioneers used the same "door" . . . Cooking was usually done out of doors. The few tools necessary for hut construction were well known to the Indian at that time. They had been sold to him for a number of years by English and French trading-posts. Some skill in their use had also been acquired from white prisoners who were recipients of favors during captivity if skilled in axcraft. As the materials for huts and tepees were easily available near by, the rebuilding of the villages which the invaders burned from 1779 to 1790 was not a difficult task. . . . Rebuilding was soon begun; in fact, began with the invaders' return march to the Kentucky settlements.> GALLOWAY:44-45

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:16:14 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28007
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Col. John Bowman did not know the exact location of Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami; he directed Simon Kenton to select two other scouts to determine same and effective line of march. Kenton, George Clark, and Richard Montgomery. Disguised as Indians, located village without being discovered. Could not resist the temptation to steal a drove of horses they found pasturing in a prairie meadow northeast of the village, many of which had been taken from VA and KY. These seven horses proved to be their undoing. Overtaken at the Ohio river while trying in vain to get the horses across the stormy waters. Kenton captured, Montgomery killed, Clark escaped to bring back the desired information. Bowman's line of march began with his forces gathering at the mouth of Licking (Covington KY); followed Little Miami to Old Chillicothe, guided by Clark and William Whitley. GALLOWAY:48-49

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:16:34 AM
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    ID: 27-40-20647-28008
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Accountrements of the Kentucky militiaman: flint-lock rifles, many barrels measuring 42-44 inches, some 57 inches from end to end. Average weight 10 pounds. 54 to 40 caliber (32 or 40 bullets to the pound of lead). Powder carried in a homemade "steer's horn," hung by a leather strap across the shoulders. Homemade deerskin bag to carry extra flint chips and lead for 100 or more bullets, bullet-molds, and "one gill of salt." Small buffalo horn with emergency powder in the pocket, as well as some extra bullets, in case of the loss of pouch and large horn. Additional tanned deerhide pouch containing parched corn tied on the body belt; pieces of jerked buffalo meat in the large pouch. GALLOWAY:47

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:16:52 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20647-28009
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Bowman's Campaign of 1779 (DB not present) 1: In Otaheminegesfoki (Strawberry month), May and June; expedition composed of men under Benjamin Logan and Silas Harlan from Harrodsburgh, Captain John Holder from Boonesborough, and Captain Levi Todd; total of 296 men. Marched from Lexington by way of Little North Fork of Elkhorn, camping the first night near its mouth; second night on a branch of Mill Creek, two miles north of Lee's Lick; then down the Licking to its mouth. Crossed the Ohio on 5/28/1779, leaving 32 men to watch the boats; marched along the Indian trace toward Old Chillicothe on the east side of the Little Miami. On the second evening around dusk came within ten miles of the town without being discovered. There were perhaps 100 warriors at Chillicothe (with another 400 at the villages of Wapatomica, Mackacreek and Picqua on Mad River to the northwest), 400 warriors and their families under chiefs Black Stump and Yellow Hawk, and accompanied by the French Loramie, having several months previous left for Spanish Missouri, determined to avoid further war with the Americans. So Bowman found few Indians to oppose him. No truth to the report that 75 warriors escaped before the battle began; Alford: "there is no record in American history that 75 Shawnee warriors ever ran away from any enemy without putting up a stiff fight, especially when their women and children and a part of the warriors -- about 35 [elsewhere says 100] men and boys included -- were trapped, but were standing off the attacking force, with great bravery and without any loss of life." Principal chief Black Fish; subordinates Black Hoof and Black Beard. Northeast of the center of the town stood the Council-house, a large building one story high, 60 feet square, built of round hickory logs, with gable ends open and upright posts supporting the roof. Black Fish's cabin some 30 yards to the west of this. 10 or 12 board houses or huts in the south part of the village. Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:54-66 passim; continued.

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:17:33 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20647-28010
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Bowman's Campaign of 1779 (DB not present) 2: Council of Bowman's officers determined to wait until daylight to begin the attack; devised a plan to draw the Indians out of their cabins. Drew up in their positions around the town. The Indian dogs set up a loud and persistent barking; owners came out and encouraged them as if they were apprehensive of danger. Shawnee hunter, returning to the village, suddenly stopped, aware of danger, yelled out, in Shawnee "Who's there?" A Kentuckian, near him, shot him, the hunter calling out as he died. Another soldier ran up and scalped him. The report of the gun destroyed the plan of battle. Shawnee warriors came from the town, approaching the line, to investigate. Fire commenced on both sides. Black Fish wounded in one of the first volleys; shot in the knee and up his thigh, out the hip -- hit in a squatting position; taken to his cabin by three warriors; he called upon them all not to leave him but to stand their ground and die together. Great outcry in the village; Kentuckians saw Shawnee women and children running from cabin to cabin in great confusion, and gathering in the most central and strongest place for defense -- the Council-house. Holder's men advanced on the outlying board cabins and began plundering, giving the Indians ample time to fortify themselves by fastening securely the door of the Council-house. Some 30-40 cabins were torched after the troops had looted them of a considerable quantity of kettles, blankets, furs, and silver ornaments. Corn fields burned. Attempt made to storm the Council-house, but they were beaten back by the defender's fire. At daylight Bowman found his men were about 100 yards from the cabins in which the defenders had gathered. Thinking it imprudent to storm these cabins, Bowman ordered men to fall back to the south of town. Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:54-66 passim; continued

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:18:05 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20647-28011
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Bowman's Campaign of 1779 (DB not present) 3: Several men continued to fire into the Council-house, but finally gave up, attempted to retreat, but were fired on furiously. Several were killed. They finally escaped by holding the house planks on their backs as a shield and starting on the run. All escaped. In the Council-house, Assatakoma, a centurnarian conjurer, kept encouraging the warriors congregated there -- not over 25, with 15 more boys who could shoot; squaws and children screaming and whooping. Joseph Jackson in the Council-house, tied to a post. Bowman's men rounded up a drove of horses and captured some 180 (163 later gotten across the Ohio). "It was the break-away of men from the ranks to secure them, after they had been located, that disorganized Colonel Bowman's command and destroyed the discipline of his troops during and following the battle." Bowman ordered his troops to commence their march home about 10 AM, after suffering 9 killed. Much confusion and fear among the Kentuckians; in part because about daybreak a Negro woman came running out of the Council-house as if having just escaped, reached the army, and declared that Simon Girty with 100 Shawnees from Piqua (12 miles distant) was expected hourly. This rumor spread among the men, who were soon talking about Girty and his 500 men. The Indian losses in the battle are unknown; except the moral wound and later death of Black Fish (Mkahday-wah-may-quah) and the hunter killed at the beginning. Thomas Wilcat Alford in GALLOWAY:54-66, passim; continued

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:18:31 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28012
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Bowman's Campaign of 1779 (DB not present) 3: Bowman's party had not marched more than 14 miles before the Shawnees began to press hard on their rear. Bowman formed his men in a square, but the Indians refused close engagement, firing sporadically from cover; the march began again, and the Shawnees repeated the same tactics. The retreat was greatly hampered by the attempt to save all the plunder from the town. This happened several times until John Bulger, James Harrod, and George Michael Bedinger, with 100 men on horseback, rushed the Indian ranks and dispersed them. In the retreat Bowman lost three more men. Reached the Ohio 6/1/1779. After crossing the Ohio the booty was divided; amounted to about $500 continental for each man; notes were given to the men by the commanders, but there is no record that these were ever paid. Thomas Wilcat Alford in GALLOWAY:56-58

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:18:49 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28013
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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CLARKCAMPAIGN80 against Old Chillicothe: to avenge the disaster at Ruddell's and Martin's Forts. DB present. 1000 Kentuckians formed into an army of reprisal. At Harrodsburg, Clark blocked all exits; stopped land speculation, then at its height; drafted all available men whether native or transient; and seized all available resources without "compunction of conscience." Crossed the Ohio from the rendezvous at Licking mouth on 8/2/1780. Guided by Simon Kenton. Simon Girty and his brother [which one?] and four Shawnees discovered the army, warned Chillicothe, people fled to Piqua (5 miles west of present-day Springfield, Clark county, Ohio) and torched their own town. Clark arrived on 8/6/1780 and halted for a day to give his men a chance to rest and destroy the entire town and fields, except for 5 acres left to feed them on their return march. 8/7/1780 marched at daybreak and arrived at Piqua, engaging the Shawnee in battle about 2 PM. A soldier deserted to the Indians before the army arrived, giving notice of the approaching expedition. [Possibly Jack Dunn.] Battle lasted until 5 PM. Orders of Americans were to take no prisoners. Indians believed the Americans fought this day with a "madness" that they could not withstand and retreated. About 20 men lost on both sides. Piqua was laid out "in the manner of the French settlements," a line village; after its destruction, the inhabitants moved west to the Great Miami and constructed a new Upper and Lower Piqua. Clark's army marched back to Chillicothe where, on 8/10/1780, they harvested and consumed the remaining field of corn. Results: Chillicothe and Piqua (12-14 miles to the northwest) both destroyed, but without occupation of the Shawnee territory, this resulted in little change in the status quo ante. Kentuckians thought the destruction of the corn fields and village homes was a severe blow, "a delusion which shouldhave been obvious with succeeding invasions." GALLOWAY:66-78

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:19:15 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20647-28014
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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1: DB present. Background for this campaign began with the Gnadenhutten massacre of 3/8/1782. The defeat of Crawford's army in May, and his torture and death, were a direct result of the Indian fury at this massacre. As were the Indian army that beseiged Bryan's Station, and the defeat at the Blue Licks. Clark again headed an army of reprisal. The army rendezvoused across the Ohio from the mouth of Licking. 11/4/1782 the army set out for the Shawnee towns, Kenton, Waters, and DB piloting. Logan went ahead with 150 horsemen to Loramie's trading store at the head of the Miami (Shelby county, Ohio) where they burned the large stock of supplies there. The army marched by way of Chillicothe, which they so surprised that upon entering they found fires burning, pots boiling, meat roasting on sticks. This was a real treat to the famished Kentuckians; first they indulged their hunger and their passion for plunder, then burned the town once again. Clark then dispatched men to a village on Wills Creek called Willstown, which was also destroyed, then to the villages on the Great Miami which were also burned: two Chillicothes and Upper and Lower Piqua, the first on the site of present-day Piqua, Miami county, Ohio, the second three miles above. <This campaign so thoroughly crushed the Indians, that no more organized raids were made against the surrounding settlements, and the termination of the Revolutionary War left them to their own resources.> GALLOWAY:79-86, quote of 86, continued

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:19:48 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28015
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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2: DB present. Clark's orders to his army before the Battle of Old Town (Old Chillicothe), 11/9/1782: <Gen'l orders as an action with the Enemy may be hourly Expected the Officers are Requested to pay the Strictest attention To their duty as Suffering no man to Quit his Rank Without leave as Nothing is more dangerous than Disorder. If fortunately any prisoner Should fall in to our hands they are by no means to be put to Death without leave as it will be attended with the Immediate Masseerce of all our Citizens that are in the hands of the Enimy and Also deprive us of the advantage of Exchanging for our own people, no person to attempt to take any Plunder until Orders Should Issue for that purpose under penalty of Being punished for Disobedience of orders and to have no Share of Such plunder himself. The Officers in perticular are requested to Observe that the STrictest Notice be paid to this Order, as much Depends on it all plunder taken to be Delivered to the Quarter Master, to be Devided among the Different Batallions in proportion to their Numbers any person Concealing Plunder of any kind shall be Considered as Subject to the penalty of the Above Order. <G. R. Clark> GALLOWAY:84-85

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:20:11 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20647-28016
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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3: DB present. George Rogers Clark to William Irvine, Miami River, 11/13/1782: <Sir: I fell in with your late Expresses on the 2nd Inst at the mouth of Licking Creek -- Was happy to find that our designs was likely to be well timed -- We march'd on the third, the 10th surprised the principal Shawnee Town Chillecauthy, but not so compleatly as wished for, as most of the Inhabitants had time to make their escape. We got a few Scalps and Prisoners -- I immediately detached strong parties to the neighbouring Towns and in a short time laid five of them in ashes, with all their Riches -- The British trad'g post as [at?] the carrying place shared the same fate -- I can't learn by the Prisoners that they had any Idea of your second design & hope that you will compleatly surprise the Sanduskians -- I beg leave to Refer you to Mr. Tate & his companin for particulars for reason well known to you. <I am Sir with respect <Your Obdt Servt <G. R. Clark> GALLOWAY:85

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:20:33 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20647-28017
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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1: DB present. Part of Clark's more general campaign against the Wabash Indians. September, 1786, Logan assembled from Lincoln and Fayette counties 790 mounted Kentuckians. 10/6/1786 the invading army reached the Mack-a-chach villages on the Upper Scioto: Mamacomink, Puckshauoses, Maquechaick, Blue Jacket's Town, Pecowick, Kispoco, Waccachalla, and Chillacote. These were all situated on Alluman and Deer creeks. Here a series of running skirmishes; a dozen Indians killed. Most important was the surrender of old chief Moluntha with his three wives, one of whom was Grenadier Squaw, Indian name Non-helema, English name Catherine, usually called Katy (she was the sister of Cornstalk). <She was the most remarkable of all western aboriginal women.> (91) Moluntha soon after murdered by Hugh McGary. <Captain Hugh McGary, whose rash leadership has been held responsible for the disaster at Blue Licks, hearing the King of the Shawnees had been taken prisoner, came to see him and found it was Moluntha, one of the Blue Lick Shawnee leader chiefs. Moluntha, who was smoking a pipe and passing it to others of the crowd about him, held out his hand to McGary, who took it and asked him if he was at the Blue Lick defeat. Moluntha answered that he commanded the warriors of his town there. Then McGary, in a rage exclaimed "God damn you, I'll give you Blue Lick play." He seized a tomahawk and sunk it in the old chiefs head, causing immediate death. [citing Thomas M. Green, HISTORIC FAMILIES OF KENTUCKY:137]> McGary was courtmartialed for this act, but received a suspended sentence. GALLOWAY:90-92

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:21:14 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28018
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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2: DB present. On 10/11/1786 Logan's army destroyed Mackachack, McKeestown, Moluntha's town, and Wapotomica, the residents having deserted them. Considerable booty and horses taken; but plunder amounted to only $2.50 per man for the 885 men. The warriors (400) had mostly gone to war against Clark on the Wabash. GALLOWAY:93-94

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:21:38 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28019
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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<The American narratives are incomplete to students familiar with the safeguards which are known to have been thrown around Boone to prevent his escape, so specially urgent at that time. Old Chillicothe was swarming with a war-party preparing, he believed, to move against his home settlement in Kentucky, but in fact on their return journey from an unsucessful invasion in Virginia. Any unexplained absence of Boone -- who had accepted adoption with its obligations -- from the village, for a half-day or a night, would have started pursuit by bands of Indian trailers, impossible for him to have outrun in his four-day journey to his home, the direct overland distance of which is fairly estimated at 160 miles from Old Chillicothe. Instictively his objective would have been determined, and from out of the hundreds of Indian warriors available, the surest and fleetest marathon trailers in America would have been chosed to track Boone and recapture him. The Shawnee explanation of Boone's escape accounts for the time necessary for him to get so far on his way as to be beyond successful pursuit; it also proves that strategy, Boone's well-known characteristic, did not fail him at this time. There is no Shawnee tradition that they undertook to trail him after they felt certain that he had escaped. They relate that Boone was sent out by Black Fish to locate and drive back the tribe's horses to their usual stockade near the village. These horses, when not needed, were turned loose to pasture at will in the forest. They followed an old leader horse with a bell strapped to his neck. The sound of a bell always carried far in the quiet of the forest, especially at evening time, and was of great assistance in locating the horses when they were to be brought in. Boone found the drove, and removed the bell from the lead horse's neck. Then after some delay, he returned to the village and reported to Black Fish that he had not been able to find the horses. The chief ordered him to go back and find them, and not to return till he could bring them in. This gave Boone the necessary freedom to make his get-away, together with a lapse of time that left his trail old and uncertain, even if the Indians could have found the point from which it started. Successful pursuit was consequently impossible with a man as skillful as Boone in "covering and backtracking."> DB followed the Bullskin Trail which bore directly south from Old Chillicothe to the mouth of Bullskin Creek at the Ohio River. GALLOWAY:259-60

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:22:26 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
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    ID: 27-40-20647-28020
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1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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No-hel-e-ma; 1: Sister of Cornstalk, called Katy. Probably born in the 1720s. She and her brother members of the Mequochake clan of the Shawnee, to which belonged the priests or medicine men of the nation; the clan seemed to dwell at Oldtown, MD, whither they had been led in 1698 by a French deserter. By 1728 they had removed to a village on the upper Ohio. She seems to have leaned to the French. Grew very tall and vigorous; dubbed by the English the "Grenadier Squaw," since she carried herself like a grenadier soldier at the head of his troop. Married and had at least one daughter. About 1747 the Mequochake-Shawnee left for the Scioto, where, at its mouth on the Ohio, they built a substantial village of log houses, part on the south side, but council house and most cabins on the north bank. She lived here for some ten years. A terrible flood caused them to abandon the site and move farther up the river to the "Great Plain of Maguck," later called Pickaway Plains, one of the most beautiful and fertile sites in Ohio. Here the Shawnees built several towns, and Cornstalk and Nonhelema each had a village, located on either side of Scippo Creek. Described as cheerful and merry, laughing and joking, "gentle in character and consequently easier to govern than all other Indians," (French) the French War certainly changed these Shawnees; Cornstalk raided the VA frontier; Nonhelema kept a number of captives at her village. Louise Phelps Kellogg in GALLOWAY:283-295 continued

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:22:59 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28021
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28021


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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No-hel-e-ma; 2: David Zeisberger made his first visit to this region in 1772, working directly with Cornstalk. It was likely at this time that Nohelema accepted Christianity and was baptised Catherine (Kate). She was with her brother during all the main events of Dunmore's war. She took part in the first treaty made by the Americans with the Western Indians at Pittsburg in 1775. She supplied information to the Americans and carried messages to her people; by the time her brother was murdered by frontier militiamen she had been rejected by enough of the Shawnee to cause her to turn to the Americans for support. In her petition to Congress in 1785 she ways: <Your petitioner at the commencement of the hostilities perpetrated by his despotic Majesty, the King of Great Britian, on the United States, avowed a different disposition from the rest of her friends and brethren, the Indians generally, and abstracted myself from them and took refuge in the garrison of Fort Randolph, belonging to the State of Virginia; into which garrison your petitioner took forty-eight head of horned cattle, which were taken for the use of the garrison without making me any compensation for them, also a number of horses, and was obliged to leave a very considerable Property behind me, which my brethren would not suffer me to remove.> Later she wrote: <Through the hospitality of the different commanding officers in this western country, I was allowed at some times a part of a ration of provision at the public expense.> She acted as interpreter and painted and disguised the white messengers who in the spring of 1776 went to warn the border of the approach of hostile Shawnees. Louise Phelps Kellogg in GALLOWAY:283-295 continued

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:23:21 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28022
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28022


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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No-hel-e-ma; 3: She hung about the western forts of Randolph and Pitt. In 1780 she went with the French officer Augustin Mottin de la Balme to urge the Indians and French to join with the Americans; in 1783 Clark recommended sending "the Indian woman to the Shawnee," undoubtedly meaning her. Her petition of 1785, quoted above, requested "two thousand acres of land on the west side of the Scioto river, above the old Pickawee town, where she once resided and had goods, houses and fields, where her mother is buried, which she says is a great motive to her particularly fixing on that spot. She also thinks of collecting her relations, and withdrawing them from the Shawanoe nation to that place if granted." Both Clark and Richard Butler, a trader at the Shawnee towns before Dunmore's War, signed her petition. But before an answer came, she had thrown in her lot again with her own people. By late 1785 she and her daughter Fanny and son Morgan were in the village of Moluntha (of her own clan), on the head waters of the Miami, near the present town of West Liberty, Logan county, Ohio. She and her village were parties to the Treaty of Fort Finney in 1786. In that year her village was the first to be attacked by Logan's forces; the chief was captured with the women of his family, among whom was Nonhelema. Then the scene of Moluntha's murder. She was imprisioned at Danville in KY through the winter. Her exchange was arranged by DB and Col. Robert Patterson. We hear nothing more of her. Whether she died not long after her return home or removed with that portion of her tribe that went in 1787 and 1788 to live in Spanish Missouri, we do not know. Louise Phelps Kellogg in GALLOWAY:283-295 continued

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:23:41 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28023
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28023


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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No-hel-e-ma; 4: <It is difficult for us of a different tradition to estimate the character of an Indian woman. That in her early days Nonhelema had been a bloodthirsty savage seems proved by the fact that the burning-ground of the Shawnee captives was a part of her village on the Scioto. That on becoming a Christian and being baptized she was sincere, appears by her keeping faith with the whites after the treaty, even to losing her home and her standing with her people. She proved herself a woman of affairs by the prosperity of her village on the Scioto and by the part she took at Lord Dunmore's treaty of Fort Charlotte. Later, as an exile and as captive, she retained her personal integrity and endured affliction without complaint. Among those to whom the historians of Ohio should give a meed of praise stands Nonhelema, the Shawnee princess.> Louise Phelps Kellogg in GALLOWAY:283-295 continued

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:23:59 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28024
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28024


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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The individual totem is called PAWAWKA; it is acquired or earned by worthy accomplishment or personal preparation of individuals, through any object, animate or inanimate, and indicated by any kind of sign: noise, groan, or action. In the possessive, OPAWAWKA is what gives one power and presence. The search for one's Pawawka was a vision quest for Shawnee boys. <Special manifestations of the Great Spirit's love and care for all His children are available whenever they may be in need of help.> MEESAWME is the free gift of the Great Spirit to each clan; represented by some material thing -- what that is only those who have the right to know can say. Something like a medicine bundle. UMSOMA is the spirit, which is an animal, whose actions or characteristics are represented in the name of a person; six divisions (horse, animals with paws, fowls, raccoon and bear, turtle, rabbit); one's Umsoma is determined by the affiliation of the person who names the child -- they have the same Umsoma. Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:303-11

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:24:26 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28025
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28025


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Blue Jacket Was a captive by the name of Marmaduke Van Sweringen of western VA. Captured by the Shawnee while out with a younger brother on a hunting expedition some time during the Revolutionary War; about 17, stout, healthy, well developed, active; became a model of manly activity, strength and symmetry. Agreed to be adopted by his captors; his brother returned home in safety. Took his name from the blue linsey hunting-shirt he wore when captured. During his boyhood he had often expressed his determination to join the Indians when he reached manhood. Took up residence somewhere on the Scioto River. Chosen to be a chief before he was 25. Took a Shawnee wife and raised several children, but only one son, Jim Blue Jacket, who was a rather dissipated, wild and reckless fellow. GALLOWAY:299

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:24:48 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28026
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28026


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Some vocabulary: Americans/Shemanese (Big Knives) Soldier/Shemagana Englishman/Englishmanake Frenchman/Tota Council House/Takatchemoke Wigwa Great Spirit/Wishemenetoo Devil/Matchemenetoo Dead/Nepwa Nut/Pacan Gun/Metequa Salt/Nepepimma Sugar/Melassa My Friend/Ne cana GALLOWAY:314-15

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:25:09 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28027
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28027


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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<The Ohio habitats chosen by the Shawnees were locations of natural beauty and easily-induced fertility. The valley of the Muskingum and Scioto Rivers and the Little and Great Miamis were choice spots to those who came out of Virginia and Kentucky to conquer and possess them. In that stirring period which ended at Greenville in 1795, the command, "Thou shalt not covet," was more honored in its breach than in its observance.> GALLOWAY:270

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:25:36 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28028
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28028


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Black Hoof, noted Shawnee warrior and subordinate chief to Black Fish, was born in Florida about 1720, and remembered bathing in the ocean. Indication of the wide dispersal of the Shawnee. Louise Phelps Kellogg in GALLOWAY:284n

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:26:04 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28029
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28029


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Lower Shawnee Town on the Ohio at the mouth of the Scioto, in the journal of Christopher Gist, 1/29/1751, on a surveying expedition: 40 houses on the south bank of the Ohio, 100 on the north bank, where also was the settlement's council house, 90 feet long and tightly roofed with bark. Also a French trading post, there for a number of years. GALLOWAY:202

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:26:31 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28030
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28030


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Varieties of corn: flint with solid good sized kernels and opaque pearl-colored hull, used for hominy; white hull, deep or narrow grain, a soft flour-like white kernel and small cob, used for bread flour; large medium hard grain used for corn meal; quick maturing small-eared corn for early roasting ears and succotash. All varieties were white. GALLOWAY:183n

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:26:55 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28031
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28031


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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<We believed in the existence of a SUPREME BEING, whom we designated as MONETO, who ruled the universe (YALAKUQUAKUMIGIGI), dispensing blessings and favors to those who earned his good-will, and bringing unspeakable sorrow to those whose conduct merited his displeasure. The Great Spirit is spoken of in the personal neuter gender (although the pronoun "he" is used), because there is not masculine or feminine gender in the Shawnee language. Men and women are spoken of as of the same gender, and only the name of the individual contains the discrimination.> Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:177

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:27:26 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28032
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28032


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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General Harmar's expedition against the Shawnees, 1790, DB not present. Burned the deserted (and already burning) Shawnee towns on the Great Miami; recovered 15000 bushels of corn, found stored there. Indians led by Little Turtle defeated Harmar in two engagements. The line of march followed the east bank of the Little Miami to Old Chillicothe, thence northwest to the Maumee settlements. GALLOWAY:96-99

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:27:59 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28033
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28033


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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None of the invasions of Shawnee country north of the Ohio seriously depleted their civil resources or their military spirit. Relatively few Indians killed; villages quickly rebuilt; food available from the Auglaize country to the north, unknown to Americans before Wayne's campaign of 1794. In the meantime, a new generation of warriors had grown to manhood imbued with the war spirit, distrusting and hating the Kentuckians as much as the Kentuckians hated them. GALLOWAY:67n

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:28:30 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28034
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28034


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Compare with DB's: This about Simon Kenton: <One peculiarity not usually alluded to was the manner in which General Kenton wore his hair -- in a queue. Many times, it has been the pleasure of this writer to hear the venerable pioneers, W. A. Smith of Jamestown, Ohio, and Grandma Sarah Bales relate, that when Kenton visited their home, which he often did, she took great pride in dressing his hair. During the period of 1800 to 1821, when these visits were most frequent, when he was standing it reached to the calves of his legs.> XENIA GAZETTE 7/8/1896 in GALLOWAY:257

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:29:19 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28035
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28035


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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<The extensive orchards, cornfields, and gardens in the Auglaize country (about Fort Defiance) which were a base of food supplies, were not reached until General Wayne's campaign, ending in the Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794. There was real hunger among the Indians the winter following this battle when England withdrew her support. This "base of supplies" explained the lack of serious damage done in the destruction from 1779 to 1790, of sectional villages and supplies, for as long as any food lasted it was Indian common property.> GALLOWAY:44

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:29:55 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28036
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28036


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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There were five organized military invasions directed against Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami, either as primary or strategic points of attack on the Shawnee of the two Miamis and the Mad river valley: 1) Col. John Bowman's expedition, 1779; 2) Gen. George Rogers Clark's expedition, 1780; 3) Clark expedition, 1782; 4) Col. Benjamin Logan's expedition, 1786; 5) Gen. Josiah Harmar's expedition, 1790. In these expeditions Old Chillicothe was destroyed four times, in 1780, '82, '86, and '90. GALLOWAY:43

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:30:19 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28037
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28037


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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General Harmar in his daily log of march, 10/30/1790: <All these Chillicothys are elegant situations -- fine water near them and beautiful prairies. The savages knew how to take a handsome position, as well as any people on earth. When they leave a Chilicothe, they reture to another place and call it after the same name.> GALLOWAY:44

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:30:42 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28038
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28038


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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<Sixteen years of warfare and the Treaty of Greenville were required to dislodge him [the Shawnee] from the Miami Valleys.> GALLOWAY:45

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:31:02 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28039
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28039


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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The Chalahgawtha and Maykujay remained in Ohio after 1779; gradually the Maykujay lost their separate identity, most mergingin into the Chalahgawtha, others intermarrying with the Seneca and Wyandot. Two locations, one on the Little Miami centering on Old Chillicothe, another north on the Auglaize River, at a place they called Wapaghkonetta (Wapakoneta). Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:41

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:31:31 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28040
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28040


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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One Chillicothe town was located at the mouth of the Scioto, which the traders called "Lower Shawnee Town." This was destroyed by an unusual flood in 1752 or '53, and was rebuilt with a few log cabins on the shore opposite the mouth of the Scioto. They invited their Peckuwe brothers living at Logstown to come and live with them and quit the French. After the destruction of this town [?], some moved up the Scioto, joined by others who left Logstown in 1758, and built a town at the Great Plains of Maykujay (now known as Pickaway Plains); here part of the Chalahgawtha and Kispoko clans established themselves opposite their brothers the Maykujay. The remaining Chalahgawtha, with the Peckuwe and Thawegila clans, moved northwest toward the Little Miami where they settled. The towns of the former grouping were known as Kispoko and Chalahgawtha, of the latter as Peckuwe and Chalahgawtha of Little Miami. Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:23,39

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:31:51 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28041
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28041


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Towns of the Mayjukay were designated Moquck or Macqueechaick; one stood on the east side of the Scioto above what are known as Pickaway Plains. Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:23

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:32:08 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28042
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28042


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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SHAWNEES called the Cumberland Skipaki Theepi or "Blue River." Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:19

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:32:27 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28043
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28043


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Division of clans: each has a special duty to the nation. Peckuwe has charge of maintenance of duty and celebration of things pertaining to Maneto; Kispugo of things pertaining to war; Maykujay of health and medicine; Thawegila dna Chalahgawtha of things political or pertaining to the nation as a whole. Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:21

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:32:47 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28044
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28044


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Homeland in KY and northern TN; common town was Skipakithiki (Place of Blue), appearing in the white record as Eskipakithiki. This town built and rebuilt many times. Was known to early traders as Pick Town or Pickque, or Blue Lick Town, or Pickawilany, from Peckuwe, the name of one of their clans, and "ilani," meaning man. Thomas Wildcat Alford in GALLOWAY:19

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:33:12 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28045
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28045


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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If the Chalahkawthas built a town, it would be called Chillicothe; if they moved and the town was reoccupied by the Kispokotha clan, it would be renamed Kispokothage. Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami was first built by the Peckuwethas, and called Piqua or Peckuwe; when the Chalahkawthas came to dominate the name became Chillicothe. Just as there were several Piqua towns built by the Peckuwethas, so there were at least five Chillicothes, each built or occupied for a greater or lesser time by the Chalahkawtha clan: 1) on the site of present Piqua, on the Great Miami, Miami county, Ohio; 2) Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami, now Oldtown, north of Xenia, Green county, Ohio ; 3) Chillicothe, Ohio, also called Old Chillicothe, on the Scioto River near the mouth of Paint Creek, Ross county, Ohio; 4) Hopetown, three miles north of Chillicothe on the Scioto, sometimes also called Oldtown, Ross county, Ohio; 5) Frankfort, on the North Fork of Paint Creek, Ross county, Ohio. Possibly two more: one on the St. Mary's River and another near the present site of St. Mary's, both probably in Auglaize county, Ohio. GALLOWAY:17,43

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:33:34 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28046
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28046


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Chillicothe: from CHA-LAH-KAW-THA, one of the most powerful clans. Shawnee pronunciation was <of little consequence to the pioneers whose efforts were largely to destroy, and not preserve, living characteristics of a race which courageously opposed their acquisitions.> In Shawnee pronunciation, used a low guttural sound difficult for English speakers; sounding each syllable as if detached from the rest: CHI-LE-COTH-E. GALLOWAY:16

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:33:52 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28047
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28047


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Thomas Wildcat Alford to William Albert Galloway, n.d.: Sends a sketch of Shawnee history <based upon notes I have collected to use in writing a history of my people which, if God spares my life long enough, I hope to finish; these notes are based upon Shawnee tradition in so far as it is corroborated by records of your people. I have had great difficulty in getting at the truth; so many statements of your people are at variance with our tradition and vice versa, that at times I get almost discouraged.> GALLOWAY:18n

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    Created: 8/14/2017 12:34:10 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28048
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28048


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami, circa 1770s: <Indians had long since learned from white prisoners the use of the ax, saw, auger and wooden pin, their purchase having been available to Indians at the French and English trading-posts for half a century or more. Huts located on the bottom lands were pretty well scattered, and occupied much of the land north of the ridge to Massies Creek and the Little Miami River. There were likewise a number of tepees among the huts.> GALLOWAY:13

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:34:35 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28049
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28049


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Migration of the "Absentee Shawnee": the outcome of years of solemn deliberation by the Shawnees in meetings at the Chillicothe council house. GALLOWAY:14

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:34:55 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28050
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28050


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami: extended hard soil ridge for residences; excellent water-shed; fine spring near by; rich prairie lands on both sides of the ridge; Little Miami with good fishing and canoe connection to the Ohio River; surrounded by wooded hills rich in game. This description from the Draper mss: <In the spring of 1779, the village was inhabited by 100 warriors and 200 squaws and children. . . . Four hundred warriors and their families, estimated at 1000 to 1200 Shawnees, had migrated, settling near the present site of Cape Girardeau, Missouri. Restlessness and mass movement were Shawnee characteristics. So the village, by June 1779, -- the date of the first punitive expedition against it -- was three-fourths under-populated (a fortunate condition, indeed, for the invading expedition). In the center of the village stood the large Council-house (MSI-KAH-MI-QUI) -- about sixty feet square, built of strong notched hickory logs, with open gables at each end, and upright posts in the center supporting the roof. There were a dozen board huts on the southern slope of the ridge, besides many log ones scattered along the ridge quite far out to the southwest. North of the ridge were many ordinary huts, some well built.> Draper? No citation from the collection provided. GALLOWAY:13

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:35:26 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28051
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28051


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami: principal village and home of the Cha-lah-kaw-tha clan of the Shawnee. Previous to 1770 known as Piqua, and home of the Pe-ku-we. This was the place of DB's captivity and of Simon Kenton's gauntlet run, both of 1778. In the Msi-kah-mi-qui (council house) were held the meetings where war or peace was decided. GALLOWAY:10

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:35:50 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28052
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28052


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Blue Jacket was a captured white boy -- Marmaduke Van Sweringen -- who had been adopted; was the first in command of the Indian forces that defeated St. Clair, and second in command of the allied Indian army defeated by Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. GALLOWAY:12

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:36:07 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28053
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28053


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami was the home of the Kispokotha chief Pucksinwah (Bucksinwa), father of Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa. GALLOWAY:12

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:36:23 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28054
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28054


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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SHAWNEES called the Ohio River SPAY-LAY-WI-THEEPI. GALLOWAY:13n

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:36:42 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28055
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28055


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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First attack on Old Chillicothe on the Little Miami was by 264 Kentucky volunteers led by Col. James Bowman in 6/1779. At that time Black Fish was the principal civil chief, Black Hoof the "battle chief." This was a punitive mission. The underlying issue was the determination of the Shawnees to maintain the Ohio as their southern boundry, as designated in the first treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768. The second Fort Stanwix treaty was not recognized by them. GALLOWAY:14

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:37:12 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28056
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28056


1934

William Albert Galloway, OLD CHILLICOTHE: SHAWNEE AND PIONEER HISTORY. CONFLICTS AND ROMANCES IN THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY (Xenia, Ohio: The Buckeye Press, 1934)

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Licking River: Skopabewe Theepi GALLOWAY:55

File: GLLWY.NT1



    Created: 8/14/2017 12:37:39 AM
    Project: Digitizing Daniel Boone
    Creator: Faragher, John Mack
    ID: 27-40-20647-28057
    Permanent Link: https://sourcenotes.miamioh.edu/id?27-40-20647-28057














    

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